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Articles by H Tamura
Total Records ( 3 ) for H Tamura
  Y Kato , S Higano , H Tamura , S Mugikura , A Umetsu , T Murata and S. Takahashi

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early accurate diagnosis of brain metastases is crucial for a patient's prognosis. This study aimed to compare the conspicuity and detectability of small brain metastases between contrast-enhanced 3D fast spin-echo (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and 3D gradient-echo (GE) T1-weighted (magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of GE [MPRAGE]) images at 3T.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine consecutive patients with suspected brain metastases were evaluated prospectively by using SPACE and MPRAGE on a 3T MR imaging system. After careful evaluation by 2 experienced neuroradiologists, 92 lesions from 16 patients were selected as brain metastases. We compared the shorter diameter, contrast rate (CR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each lesion. Diagnostic ability was compared by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Ten radiologists (5 neuroradiologists and 5 residents) participated in the reading.

RESULTS: The mean diameter was significantly larger by using SPACE than MPRAGE (mean, 4.5 ± 3.7 versus 4.3 ± 3.7 mm, P = .0014). The CR and CNR of SPACE (mean, 57.3 ± 47.4%, 3.0 ± 1.9, respectively) were significantly higher than those of MPRAGE (mean, 37.9 ± 41.2%, 2.6 ± 2.2; P < .0001, P = .04). The mean area under the ROC curve was significantly larger with SPACE than with MPRAGE (neuroradiologists, 0.99 versus 0.88, P = .013; residents, 0.99 versus 0.78, P = .0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Lesion detectability was significantly higher on SPACE than on MPRAGE, irrespective of the experience of the reader in neuroradiology. SPACE should be a promising diagnostic technique for assessing brain metastases.

  T Murakami , T Obata , K Kuwahara Arai , H Tamura , K Hiramatsu and I. Nagaoka

Endotoxin shock is a severe systemic inflammatory response that is caused by the augmented production and release of septic mediators. Among them, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-, IL-1β and IL-6 play a pivotal role. In addition, anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a non-histone chromosomal protein has recently been recognized as members of septic mediators. We previously reported that cationic antibacterial polypeptide of 11-kDa (CAP11), an antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide (originally isolated from guinea pig neutrophils), potently neutralizes the biological activity of LPS and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock. In this study, to clarify the protective mechanism of CAP11 against endotoxin shock, we evaluated the effects of CAP11 on the production and release of septic mediators in vitro and in vivo using a murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and a D-galactosamine-sensitized murine endotoxin shock model. LPS stimulation induced the production of inflammatory cytokines and anandamide and release of HMGB1 from RAW264.7 cells. Importantly, CAP11 suppressed the LPS-induced production and release of these mediators by RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, LPS administration enhanced the serum levels of HMGB1, anandamide and inflammatory cytokines in the endotoxin shock model. Of note, CAP11 suppressed the LPS-induced increase of these mediators in sera, and LPS binding to CD14-positive cells (peritoneal macrophages), accompanied with the increase of survival rates. Together these observations suggest that the protective action of CAP11 on endotoxin shock may be explained by its suppressive effect on the production and release of septic mediators by CD14-positive cells possibly via the inhibition of LPS binding to the targets.

  H Tamura , M Shibata , M Koike , M Sasaki and Y. Uchiyama

Old and unneeded intracellular macromolecules are delivered through autophagy to lysosomes that degrade macromolecules into bioactive monomers such as amino acids. Autophagy is conserved in eukaryotes and is essential for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than 30 autophagy-related genes (Atgs) have been identified in yeast. Of these genes, the18 that are essential for autophagosome formation are also conserved in mammalian cells. Atg9 is the only transmembrane Atg protein required for autophagosome formation. Although the subcellular localization of the Atg9A protein (Atg9Ap) has been examined, little is known about its precise cell and tissue distribution. To determine this, we produced an antibody specific to mouse Atg9Ap. The antibody recognized both non-glycosylated and glycosylated Atg9Ap, which have molecular masses of ~94 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively. Although Atg9Ap was ubiquitously detected, it was highly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. In Purkinje cells, Atg9Ap immunoreactivity was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), trans-Golgi network (TGN), lysosomes/late endosomes, and in axon terminals. These results suggest that Atg9Ap may be involved in autophagosome formation in the ER and axon terminals of neurons, the TGN, and lysosomes/late endosomes. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:443–453, 2010)

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