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Articles by H Sumi
Total Records ( 3 ) for H Sumi
  H Ogawa , H Sumi , Y Sumi and K. Shimizu

Snowboarding-related injuries have been associated with specific snowboarding skill levels, but differences in specific skill level have not been identified.


Injury patterns are different among skill levels.

Study Design

Descriptive epidemiology study.


The subjects were 19 539 snowboarders from the Oku-Mino region in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, who were admitted to our hospital during the 12 snowboarding seasons from 1996 to 2008. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding age, gender, self-estimated skill level, injury location, injury type, mechanism of injury, and protective gear. Physicians documented diagnostic variables and injury severity score; these variables were compared among the self-estimated skill levels.


Of the total 19 539 injured snowboarders, 1204 (6.2%) were novices, 6409 (32.8%) were beginners, 9260 (47.4%) were intermediates, 1918 (9.8%) were experts, and the skill level was not known in 748 (3.8%). Proportions of the trunk and multiple injuries increased with increases in skill level; however, the number of head/face injuries decreased with increase in skill level. Upper extremity injuries also decreased with increase in skill level, except in novices. Dislocations and multiple injuries increased with increase in skill level, while lacerations/contusions, fractures, and bruises decreased. The mean overall injury severity score was 3.28 ± 0.02, and the value increased significantly with increase in skill level. The proportion of collision and isolated fall injuries significantly decreased with increase in skill level, but that of jump injuries significantly increased. The percentage of protective gear use increased with the increase in skill level.


Prevalence of injury type, injury location, mechanism of injury, and percentage of protective gear use varied according to skill level, and the severity of the injury increased with increase in skill level. On the basis of our observations, we believe that snowboarding injury prevention strategies should be formulated according to skill level.

  H Ogawa , H Sumi , Y Sumi and K. Shimizu

Information regarding pelvic fractures sustained during snowboarding is scant.


To analyze the epidemiologic data, injury patterns, and types of pelvic fractures sustained during snowboarding.

Study Deign

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.


We analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury patterns, and types of pelvic fractures in 145 patients with snowboarding-related pelvic fractures who were admitted to our institution from the 1998–1999 to the 2006–2007 ski season.


The incidence of snowboarding-related pelvic fractures was 0.102 per 10 000 ski lift tickets, which amounted to 2% of all snowboarding-related fractures (fifth most common type of fracture among all snowboarding-related fractures). Of the pelvic fractures, 85.5% were stable (type A according to the Tile classification) and 14.5% were unstable (types B and C according to the Tile classification). Isolated sacral fractures had the second-highest incidence (24.1%) after pubic bone and/or ischium fractures (46.9%). A distinct female prevalence was seen (52.4%). Jumps and isolated falls were the main mechanisms of injury (80%), and the incidence of collision was significantly higher in the unstable group than in the stable group (P = .037). In all, 57.9% patients classified their skill level as "intermediate," and only 9.7% of patients had received professional snowboarding lessons. A total of 30 subjects (20.8%) had other injuries along with pelvic fractures; the patients with multiple injuries were significantly more frequent in the unstable group than in the stable group (P = .035).


Pelvic fractures resulting from snowboarding accidents included a higher proportion with isolated sacral fractures in the stable group and a lower prevalence of associated injuries in the unstable group compared with those resulting from other causes.

  K Yamauchi , K Wakahara , M Fukuta , K Matsumoto , H Sumi , K Shimizu and K. Miyamoto

Background: Little epidemiological research on characteristics of upper extremity injuries resulting from snowboarding has been conducted, particularly in relation to snowboarding stance, falling direction, and the side of the body where the injury occurs.

Hypothesis: Snowboarding stance and the direction of the fall may influence the frequency of the side or the location of the upper extremity injury.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: This study analyzed the information obtained from 1918 patients with fractures or dislocations of the upper extremity (excluding the fingers and scapula) sustained during snowboarding/sliding between 2000 and 2008. Diagnosis, injured part and side, stance (regular or goofy), and falling directions were prospectively analyzed. Associations among these parameters were also analyzed.

Results: As characterized by skill level, patients were beginners (57.9%), intermediates (38.0%), and experts (4.0%). Eighty-eight percent had not received instruction from licensed instructors. Diagnoses included wrist fractures (53.7%), upper arm fractures (16.8%), shoulder dislocations (11.5%), and elbow dislocations (9.8%). In sum, 1742 (90.8%) patients were in regular stance when they fell, whereas 176 (9.2%) were in goofy stance. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of the injured side between the 2 stances. When the injured sides were classified according to the sliding direction, wrist fractures (61.7%) occurred on the side opposite the sliding direction, whereas shoulder dislocations (65.6%), upper arm fractures (82.9%), and elbow dislocations (79.8%) occurred on the same side as the sliding direction. When the injured sides were classified according to the falling direction, wrist fractures (68.1%) and elbow dislocations (63.5%) occurred because of backward falls, and shoulder dislocations (68.9%) and upper arm fractures (60.7%) occurred because of forward falls.

Conclusion: Two snowboarding stances as well as 2 falling directions had a significant influence on the frequency of the injured side in the upper extremity.

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