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Articles by H Mori
Total Records ( 8 ) for H Mori
  H Mori , K Inoki , D Opland , H Munzberg , E. C Villanueva , M Faouzi , T Ikenoue , D. J Kwiatkowski , O. A MacDougald , M. G Myers and K. L. Guan
 

TSC1 is a tumor suppressor that associates with TSC2 to inactivate Rheb, thereby inhibiting signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. To test roles for TSC1 and mTORC1 in β-cell function, we utilized Rip2/Cre to generate mice lacking Tsc1 in pancreatic β-cells (Rip-Tsc1cKO mice). Although obesity developed due to hypothalamic Tsc1 excision in older Rip-Tsc1cKO animals, young animals displayed a prominent gain-of-function β-cell phenotype prior to the onset of obesity. The young Rip-Tsc1cKO animals displayed improved glycemic control due to mTOR-mediated enhancement of β-cell size, mass, and insulin production but not determinants of β-cell number (proliferation and apoptosis), consistent with an important anabolic role for mTOR in β-cell function. Furthermore, mTOR mediated these effects in the face of impaired Akt signaling in β-cells. Thus, mTOR promulgates a dominant signal to promote β-cell/islet size and insulin production, and this pathway is crucial for β-cell function and glycemic control.

  H Mori , Y Ohno , F Ito , N Funaguchi , K Yanase , J Endo , M Nakano , B. L Bai La and S. Minatoguchi
 

We report a case of gefitinib-induced bilateral upper urinary tract bleeding in an 82-year-old woman administered the drug daily for advanced non-small cell adenocarcinoma of the lung (T4N3M0). Hematuria is an uncommon adverse effect of gefitinib, and in most cases, the bleeding site is unknown. On the 44th day of oral gefitinib administration, the patient noted asymptomatic macroscopic bloody urine. Cystoscopy revealed bleeding from the bilateral ureteric orifices without hemorrhagic inflammation of the bladder. One week later, she was admitted complaining of severe abdominal pain, and her condition was found to be complicated by liver damage and renal dysfunction. We stopped gefitinib administration and started hydration and diuresis. Renal function and urine output soon recovered, and at the request of the patient, we restarted gefitinib, administering it every other day, which was sufficient to maintain antitumor activity and stabilize the disease. On the 41st day after restarting gefitinib, hematuria and proteinuria reappeared. We therefore stopped the gefitinib, and the patient was followed with supportive care. The patient's autopsy findings denied organic urologic diseases. Instead, the reproducibility of the hematuria from the upper urinary system strongly suggests an unexpected gefitinib-related adverse effect.

  H Mori , Y Ohno , F Ito , J Endo , K Yanase , N Funaguchi , B. L Bai La and S. Minatoguchi
  Objective

When treating lung cancer, pneumocystic pneumonia is a life-threatening complication seen during chemotherapy. Polymerase chain reaction is used to detect its cause, Pneumocystis jirovecii, but polymerase chain reaction positives without pneumocystic pneumonia are sometimes seen. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of pneumocystic pneumonia during cancer treatment.

Methods

Fifty induced sputum specimens and 4 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens collected from 50 patients with acute respiratory symptoms during anticancer therapy were retrospectively studied after classifying the patients into lung cancer (n = 29) and solid tumor (n = 21) groups. All of the patients in both groups had an interstitial shadow suspected of being pneumocystic pneumonia, and all had polymerase chain reaction tests.

Results

Eleven of the 54 specimens were polymerase chain reaction positive, and 1 patient was clinically diagnosed with pneumocystic pneumonia. The incidence of polymerase chain reaction positivity in the lung cancer group was significantly higher than in the solid tumor group (31 vs. 5%; P = 0.03), and the incidence of subclinical pneumocystic pneumonia (29 vs. 5%; P = 0.059) also tended to be higher in that group. There were no significant biochemical differences between the two groups, irrespective of the polymerase chain reaction results. Among polymerase chain reaction-positive patients in the lung cancer group, the cumulative dose of corticosteroid administration tended to be higher than among the polymerase chain reaction-negative patients (P = 0.09). Following the polymerase chain reaction tests, nearly all polymerase chain reaction-positive patients without pneumocystic pneumonia received antipneumocystic agents, and none developed pneumocystic pneumonia.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest polymerase chain reaction positivity for P. jirovecii will be detected in a fraction of lung cancer patients. Although it is difficult to predict the need for administration of pneumocystic pneumonia treatment to subclinical pneumocystic pneumonia based on polymerase chain reaction and biochemical results, polymerase chain reaction-positive patients should be followed-up with antipneumocystic agents to ensure they are not at an early stage of pneumocystic pneumonia.

  M Kawachi , Y Kobae , H Mori , R Tomioka , Y Lee and M. Maeshima
 

A mutant line of Arabidopsis thaliana that lacks a vacuolar membrane Zn2+/H+ antiporter MTP1 is sensitive to zinc. We examined the physiological changes in this loss-of-function mutant under high-Zn conditions to gain an understanding of the mechanism of adaptation to Zn stress. When grown in excessive Zn and observed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, wild-type roots were found to accumulate Zn in vacuolar-like organelles but mutant roots did not. The Zn content of mutant roots, determined by chemical analysis, was one-third that of wild-type roots grown in high-Zn medium. Severe inhibition of root growth was observed in mtp1-1 seedlings in 500 µM ZnSO4. Suppression of cell division and elonga-tion by excessive Zn was reversible and the cells resumed growth in normal medium. In mutant roots, a marked formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) appeared in the meristematic zone, where the MTP1 gene was highly expressed. Zn treatment enhanced the expression of several genes involved in Zn tolerance: namely, the plasma membrane Zn2+-export ATPase, HMA4, and plasma and vacuolar membrane proton pumps. CuZn-superoxide dismutases, involved in the detoxification of ROS, were also induced. The expression of plasma membrane Zn-uptake transporter, ZIP1, was suppressed. The up- or down-regulation of these genes might confer the resistance to Zn toxicity. These results indicate an essential role of MTP1 in detoxification of excessive Zn and provide novel information on the latent adaptation mechanism to Zn stress, which is hidden by MTP1.

  K Suga , A Saito , T Tomiyama , H Mori and K. Akagawa
 

In this study, we examined the interaction of Syntaxin 5L (Syx5L), a Syx5 isoform that has an N-terminal extension containing a di-arginine ER-retrieval motif, with presenilin (PS) and its effects on the processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). Similar to Syx5, Syx5L bound to PS1 holoprotein but not to its N- or C-terminal fragments. Unlike Syx5, Syx5L overexpression did not cause marked accumulation of intracellular βAPP holoprotein, and did not inhibit amyloid β peptide (Aβ) secretion. Analyses using deletion mutants of Syx5L revealed that, in addition to the difference in the intracellular localization between the isoforms, the presence of the N-terminal extension in Syx5L was critical for suppressing its inhibition of βAPP processing. Treatment of cells that overexpressed Syx5L with brefeldin A, an inhibitor of transport from the ER to the Golgi compartments, resulted in substantial accumulation of intracellular βAPP holoprotein and reduction in the secretion of Aβ. Although Syx5 and Syx5L share lengthy regions of amino acid identity, they appear to play distinct roles in modulating the metabolism and trafficking of βAPP in the early secretory compartment.

  H Kubagawa , S Oka , Y Kubagawa , I Torii , E Takayama , D. W Kang , G. L Gartland , L. F Bertoli , H Mori , H Takatsu , T Kitamura , H Ohno and J. Y. Wang
 

Although Fc receptors (FcRs) for switched immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been extensively characterized, FcR for IgM (FcµR) has defied identification. By retroviral expression and functional cloning, we have identified a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a bona fide FcµR in human B-lineage cDNA libraries. FcµR is defined as a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein of ~60 kD, which contains an extracellular Ig-like domain homologous to two other IgM-binding receptors (polymeric Ig receptor and Fc/µR) but exhibits an exclusive Fcµ-binding specificity. The cytoplasmic tail of FcµR contains conserved Ser and Tyr residues, but none of the Tyr residues match the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation, inhibitory, or switch motifs. Unlike other FcRs, the major cell types expressing FcµR are adaptive immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes. After antigen-receptor ligation or phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, FcµR expression was up-regulated on B cells but was down-modulated on T cells, suggesting differential regulation of FcµR expression during B and T cell activation. Although this receptor was initially designated as Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 3, or TOSO, our results indicate that FcµR per se has no inhibitory activity in Fas-mediated apoptosis and that such inhibition is only achieved when anti-Fas antibody of an IgM but not IgG isotype is used for inducing apoptosis.

  M Kuno , H Ando , H Morihata , H Sakai , H Mori , M Sawada and S. Oiki
 

Voltage-gated proton channels are found in many different types of cells, where they facilitate proton movement through the membrane. The mechanism of proton permeation through the channel is an issue of long-term interest, but it remains an open question. To address this issue, we examined the temperature dependence of proton permeation. Under whole cell recordings, rapid temperature changes within a few milliseconds were imposed. This method allowed for the measurement of current amplitudes immediately before and after a temperature jump, from which the ratios of these currents (Iratio) were determined. The use of Iratio for evaluating the temperature dependence minimized the contributions of factors other than permeation. Temperature jumps of various degrees (T, –15 to 15°C) were applied over a wide temperature range (4–49°C), and the Q10s for the proton currents were evaluated from the Iratios. Q10 exhibited a high temperature dependence, varying from 2.2 at 10°C to 1.3 at 40°C. This implies that processes with different temperature dependencies underlie the observed Q10. A novel resistivity pulse method revealed that the access resistance with its low temperature dependence predominated in high temperature ranges. The measured temperature dependence of Q10 was decomposed into Q10 of the channel and of the access resistances. Finally, the Q10 for proton permeation through the voltage-gated proton channel itself was calculated and found to vary from 2.8 at 5°C to 2.2 at 45°C, as expected for an activation enthalpy of 64 kJ/mol. The thermodynamic features for proton permeation through proton-selective channels were discussed for the underlying mechanism.

 
 
 
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