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Articles by H Kawai
Total Records ( 4 ) for H Kawai
  T Onishi , H Kawai , K Tatsumi , T Kataoka , D Sugiyama , H Tanaka , Y Okita and K. i. Hirata
 

Background— The best predictor for postoperative left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of preoperative systolic radial strain rate (Ssr) derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography as a predictor of postoperative LV systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation.

Methods and Results— In 52 patients (mean age, 58 years; 13 women) with isolated chronic aortic regurgitation, we performed standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography before and after operation, obtained echocardiographic parameters such as LV dimensions and LV ejection fraction, and measured Ssr in 4 walls of the LV. Linear regression analysis determined correlations between preoperative parameters and postoperative LV ejection fraction. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the optimal cutoff values of parameters that predicted postoperative LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%). The operation caused significant decreases in LV dimensions and volumes and significant increases in Ssr (1.94±0.64 to 2.39±0.83 per second; P<0.001) and ejection fraction (53.0±8.7 to 59.0±8.8%; P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that averaged Ssr was the only independent predictor of postoperative LV systolic dysfunction among the covariates examined (P<0.001). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, averaged Ssr yielded the greatest area under the curve among preoperative parameters (0.80) and was indicated to be a good predictor of postoperative LV dysfunction, with 90.9% sensitivity and 73.2% specificity (cutoff value, 1.82 per second).

Conclusions— Measurement of preoperative averaged Ssr is useful in predicting postoperative LV systolic dysfunction and optimizing surgical timing in patients with isolated chronic aortic regurgitation.

  K Tatsumi , H Kawai , D Sugiyama , K Norisada , T Kataoka , T Onishi , H Tanaka and K. i. Hirata
  Background—

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling can increase tethering force to mitral valve and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Because the relationship between FMR and regional myocardial function has not been quantitatively evaluated, we conducted a quantitative investigation of this association.

Methods and Results—

The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of FMR in 51 patients with depressed LV ejection fraction (32±9%) secondary to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy was compared with mitral deformation (valve and annulus), global LV remodeling (volume indices, function, and sphericity), and regional myocardial contractile function, as assessed by longitudinal peak systolic strain rate (Ssr) in LV anterior, anteroseptal, inferoseptal, inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments at rest. Low-dose dobutamine (10 µg/kg per minute)-induced changes in ERO were compared with changes in the variables. Multivariable analysis identified the predictors of ERO at rest as mitral valvular tenting (β=0.062; P<0.001), Ssr in the inferior segment (inferior Ssr) (β=–0.178; P<0.001), and LV sphericity (β=0.414; P=0.001) and the predictors of valvular tenting at rest as inferior Ssr (β=–1.680; P<0.001), LV end-systolic volume index (β=0.022; P=0.001), and LV sphericity (β=3.886; P=0.012). Furthermore, dobutamine-induced reduction in ERO was predicted by reduction in valvular tenting (β=0.087; P<0.001) and increase in inferior Ssr (β=–0.082; P<0.001), and dobutamine-induced reduction in valvular tenting was predicted by increase in inferior Ssr (β=–0.860; P<0.001).

Conclusions—

Inferior regional myocardial dysfunction was quantitatively associated with mitral valvular tenting and FMR. Moreover, improvement with dobutamine of inferior myocardial contractile function attenuated valvular tenting and FMR. Inferior myocardial contractile function can affect the configuration of the mitral apparatus and predict FMR severity.

  H Kawai and M. A. Raftery
 

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo electric organs is a ligand-gated ion channel that undergoes conformational transitions for activation and/or desensitization. Earlier work suggested that intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor monitors kinetic transitions toward the high-affinity, desensitized state. Here, using highly purified membrane preparations to minimize contaminating fluorescence, we examined kinetic mechanisms of the receptor as monitored by its intrinsic fluorescence. Fluorescence changes were specific to the receptor as they were blocked by -bungarotoxin and were induced by agonists, but not by the antagonist hexamethonium. Acetylcholine, carbamylcholine and suberyldicholine showed only one kinetic phase with relatively fast rates (t1/2 = 0.2–1.2 s). Effective dissociation constants were at least an order of magnitude higher than the high affinity, equilibrium binding constants for these agonists. A semirigid agonist isoarecolone-methiodide, whose activation constant was ~3-fold lower than acetylcholine, induced an additional slow phase (t1/2 = 4.5–9 s) with apparent rates that increased and then decreased in a concentration dependent manner, revealing a branched mechanism for conformational transitions. We propose that the intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor describe a process(es) toward a fast desensitization state prior to the formation of the high affinity state.

  G. i Sampei , S Baba , M Kanagawa , H Yanai , T Ishii , H Kawai , Y Fukai , A Ebihara , N Nakagawa and G. Kawai
 

Glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase (GAR-syn, PurD) catalyses the second reaction of the purine biosynthetic pathway; the conversion of phosphoribosylamine, glycine and ATP to glycinamide ribonucleotide (GAR), ADP and Pi. In the present study, crystal structures of GAR-syn’s from Thermus thermophilus, Geobacillus kaustophilus and Aquifex aeolicus were determined in apo forms. Crystal structures in ligand-bound forms were also determined for G. kaustophilus and A. aeolicus proteins. In general, overall structures of GAR-syn’s are similar to each other. However, the orientations of the B domains are varied among GAR-syn’s and the MD simulation suggested the mobility of the B domain. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the B loop in the B domain fixes the position of the β- and - phosphate groups of the bound ATP. The structures of GAR-syn’s and the bound ligands were compared with each other in detail, and structures of GAR-syn’s with full ligands, as well as the possible reaction mechanism, were proposed.

 
 
 
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