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Articles by H Jin
Total Records ( 4 ) for H Jin
  P Yue , H Jin , M Aillaud , A. C Deng , J Azuma , T Asagami , R. K Kundu , G. M Reaven , T Quertermous and P. S. Tsao
 

The recently discovered peptide apelin is known to be involved in the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. However, questions persist regarding its precise role in the chronic setting. Fasting glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels were determined on mice with generalized deficiency of apelin (APKO). Additionally, insulin (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed. To assess the impact of exogenously delivered apelin on insulin sensitivity, osmotic pumps containing pyroglutamated apelin-13 or saline were implanted in APKO mice for 4 wk. Following the infusion, ITT/GTTs were repeated and the animals euthanized. Soleus muscles were harvested and homogenized in lysis buffer, and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was determined by Western blotting. Apelin-13 infusion and ITTs/GTTs were also performed in obese diabetic db/db mice. To probe the underlying mechanism for apelin's effects, apelin-13 was also delivered to cultured C2C12 myotubes. 2-[3H]deoxyglucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were assessed in the presence of various inhibitors. APKO mice had diminished insulin sensitivity, were hyperinsulinemic, and had decreased adiponectin levels. Soleus lysates had decreased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Administration of apelin to APKO and db/db mice resulted in improved insulin sensitivity. In C2C12 myotubes, apelin increased glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation. These events were fully abrogated by pertussis toxin, compound C, and siRNA knockdown of AMPK1 but only partially diminished by LY-294002 and not at all by l-NAME. We conclude that apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity in vivo. Apelin's effects on glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation are in part mediated by a Gi and AMPK-dependent pathway.

  W. P Tsang , E. K.O Ng , S. S.M Ng , H Jin , J Yu , J. J.Y Sung and T. T. Kwok
 

H19 is an imprinted oncofetal non-coding RNA recently shown to be the precursor of miR-675. The pathophysiological roles of H19 and its mature product miR-675 to carcinogenesis have, however, not been defined. By quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, both H19 and miR-675 were found to be upregulated in human colon cancer cell lines and primary human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Subsequently, the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (RB) was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-675 as the microRNA suppressed the activity of the luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of RB messenger RNA that contains the miR-675-binding site. Suppression of miR-675 by transfection with anti-miR-675 increased RB expression and at the same time, decreased cell growth and soft agar colony formation in human colon cancer cells. Reciprocally, enhanced miR-675 expression by transfection with miR-675 precursor decreased RB expression, increased tumor cell growth and soft agar colony formation. Moreover, the inverse relationship between the expressions of RB and H19/miR-675 was also revealed in human CRC tissues and colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that H19-derived miR-675, through downregulation of its target RB, regulates the CRC development and thus may serve as a potential target for CRC therapy.

  G. X Li , Y. K Chen , Z Hou , H Xiao , H Jin , G Lu , M. J Lee , B Liu , F Guan , Z Yang , A Yu and C. S. Yang
 

(–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth in animal models. Nevertheless, the dose–response relationship of the inhibitory activity in vivo has not been systematically characterized. The present studies were conducted to address these issues, as well as the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the inhibitory action of EGCG in vivo and in vitro. We characterized the inhibitory actions of EGCG against human lung cancer H1299 cells in culture and in xenograft tumors. The growth of tumors was dose dependently inhibited by EGCG at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% in the diet. Tumor cell apoptosis and oxidative DNA damage, assessed by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and phosphorylated histone 2A variant X (-H2AX), were dose dependently increased by EGCG treatment. However, the levels of 8-OHdG and -H2AX were not changed by the EGCG treatment in host organs. In culture, the growth of viable H1299 cells was dose dependently reduced by EGCG; the estimated concentration that causes 50% inhibition (IC50) (20 µM) was much higher than the IC50 (0.15 µM) observed in vivo. The action of EGCG was mostly abolished by the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which decompose the ROS formed in the culture medium. Treatment with EGCG also caused the generation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Although EGCG is generally considered to be an antioxidant, the present study demonstrates the pro-oxidative activities of EGCG in vivo and in vitro in the described experimental system.

  H Jin , V Guacci and H. G. Yu
 

A meiosis-conditional pds5 allele in yeast provides a more detailed understanding of homologue pairing and synaptonemal complex formation.

 
 
 
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