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Articles by H Jiang
Total Records ( 11 ) for H Jiang
  H Jiang , Y Zhu , H Xu , Y Sun and Q. Li
 

Accumulating data suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in the evolution and propagation of the inflammatory process. To characterize the activation of HIF-1 in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examine the possible role of nuclear factor (NF)-B in this process, rats were challenged by introtracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exposure to cigarette smoke. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was administered via the oral route 1 h before LPS or cigarettes administration. Four weeks later, pulmonary function and histology were tested; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and arterial blood gases were assayed. Activation of pulmonary NF-B was assessed by quantitative PCR, immunoblot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Results showed that LPS and smog induced the characteristics of COPD seen in human. PDTC alleviated the development of COPD and the levels of cytokines in BALF of PDTC+COPD group were significantly decreased compared with that of COPD group. The activation of pulmonary NF-B was inhibited by PDTC and the accumulation of HIF-1 gene expression in the COPD group was attenuated by PDTC pretreatment. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of HIF-1 target genes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were parallel to the attenuation of HIF-1 by PDTC. These findings indicated that the activation of HIF-1 pathway via NF-B contributes to the development of COPD, and administration of NF-B inhibitor may attenuate the development of COPD.

  D. A Hien , H Jiang , A. N.C Campbell , M. C Hu , G. M Miele , L. R Cohen , G. S Brigham , C Capstick , A Kulaga , J Robinson , L Suarez Morales and E. V. Nunes
  Objective

The purpose of the analysis was to examine the temporal course of improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

Method

Participants were 353 women randomly assigned to 12 sessions of either trauma-focused or health education group treatment. PTSD and substance use assessments were conducted during treatment and posttreatment at 1 week and after 3, 6, and 12 months. A continuous Markov model was fit on four defined response categories (nonresponse, substance use response, PTSD response, or global response [improvement in both PTSD and substance use]) to investigate the temporal association between improvement in PTSD and substance use symptom severity during the study's treatment phase. A generalized linear model was applied to test this relationship over the follow-up period.

Results

Subjects exhibiting nonresponse, substance use response, or global response tended to maintain original classification; subjects exhibiting PTSD response were significantly more likely to transition to global response over time, indicating maintained PTSD improvement was associated with subsequent substance use improvement. Trauma-focused treatment was significantly more effective than health education in achieving substance use improvement, but only among those who were heavy substance users at baseline and had achieved significant PTSD reductions.

Conclusions

PTSD severity reductions were more likely to be associated with substance use improvement, with minimal evidence of substance use symptom reduction improving PTSD symptoms. Results support the self-medication model of coping with PTSD symptoms and an empirical basis for integrated interventions for improved substance use outcomes in patients with severe symptoms.

  L Zhu , T. J Stalker , K. P Fong , H Jiang , A Tran , I Crichton , E. K Lee , K. B Neeves , S. F Maloney , H Kikutani , A Kumanogoh , E Pure , S. L Diamond and L. F. Brass
 

Objective— In dyslipidemic states, platelets become hyperreactive, secreting molecules that promote atherosclerosis. We have shown that the semaphorin family member, sema4D (CD100), is expressed on the surface of platelets and proposed that its role includes promoting thrombus growth by binding to nearby platelets and endothelial cells, both of which express sema4D receptors. Here we tested the hypothesis that deleting sema4D will attenuate the adverse consequences of dyslipidemia on platelets and the vessel wall.

Methods and Results— Platelet function and atherosclerotic lesion formation were measured in LDLR(–/–) and sema4D(–/–)LDLR(–/–) mice after 6 months on a high-fat diet. All of the mice developed the dyslipidemia expected on this diet in the absence of functional LDL receptors. However, when compared to LDLR(–/–) mice, sema4D(–/–) LDLR(–/–) mice had reduced lipid deposition in the descending aorta, a 6-fold decrease in the frequency of arterial occlusion and a reduction to near wild-type levels in the accumulation of platelets after injury. These differences were retained ex vivo, with a marked decrease in platelet accumulation on collagen under flow and in platelet aggregation.

Conclusions— These results show that loss of sema4D expression reduces the platelet hyperactivity otherwise found in dyslipidemia, and confers protection against the development of atherosclerosis.

  J. L Wang , X Yang , K Xia , Z. M Hu , L Weng , X Jin , H Jiang , P Zhang , L Shen , J Feng Guo , N li , Y. R Li , L. F Lei , J Zhou , J Du , Y. F Zhou , Q Pan , J Wang , R. Q Li and B. S. Tang
 

Autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxias constitute a large, heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases with multiple types. To date, classical genetic studies have revealed 31 distinct genetic forms of spinocerebellar ataxias and identified 19 causative genes. Traditional positional cloning strategies, however, have limitations for finding causative genes of rare Mendelian disorders. Here, we used a combined strategy of exome sequencing and linkage analysis to identify a novel spinocerebellar ataxia causative gene, TGM6. We sequenced the whole exome of four patients in a Chinese four-generation spinocerebellar ataxia family and identified a missense mutation, c.1550T–G transition (L517W), in exon 10 of TGM6. This change is at a highly conserved position, is predicted to have a functional impact, and completely cosegregated with the phenotype. The exome results were validated using linkage analysis. The mutation we identified using exome sequencing was located in the same region (20p13–12.2) as that identified by linkage analysis, which cross-validated TGM6 as the causative spinocerebellar ataxia gene in this family. We also showed that the causative gene could be mapped by a combined method of linkage analysis and sequencing of one sample from the family. We further confirmed our finding by identifying another missense mutation c.980A–G transition (D327G) in exon seven of TGM6 in an additional spinocerebellar ataxia family, which also cosegregated with the phenotype. Both mutations were absent in 500 normal unaffected individuals of matched geographical ancestry. The finding of TGM6 as a novel causative gene of spinocerebellar ataxia illustrates whole-exome sequencing of affected individuals from one family as an effective and cost efficient method for mapping genes of rare Mendelian disorders and the use of linkage analysis and exome sequencing for further improving efficiency.

  H Jiang , H. C Reinhardt , J Bartkova , J Tommiska , C Blomqvist , H Nevanlinna , J Bartek , M. B Yaffe and M. T. Hemann
 

While the contribution of specific tumor suppressor networks to cancer development has been the subject of considerable recent study, it remains unclear how alterations in these networks are integrated to influence the response of tumors to anti-cancer treatments. Here, we show that mechanisms commonly used by tumors to bypass early neoplastic checkpoints ultimately determine chemotherapeutic response and generate tumor-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited with targeted therapies. Specifically, evaluation of the combined status of ATM and p53, two commonly mutated tumor suppressor genes, can help to predict the clinical response to genotoxic chemotherapies. We show that in p53-deficient settings, suppression of ATM dramatically sensitizes tumors to DNA-damaging chemotherapy, whereas, conversely, in the presence of functional p53, suppression of ATM or its downstream target Chk2 actually protects tumors from being killed by genotoxic agents. Furthermore, ATM-deficient cancer cells display strong nononcogene addiction to DNA-PKcs for survival after DNA damage, such that suppression of DNA-PKcs in vivo resensitizes inherently chemoresistant ATM-deficient tumors to genotoxic chemotherapy. Thus, the specific set of alterations induced during tumor development plays a dominant role in determining both the tumor response to conventional chemotherapy and specific susceptibilities to targeted therapies in a given malignancy.

  C Xu , J He , H Jiang , L Zu , W Zhai , S Pu and G. Xu
 

Hypercortisolemia and glucocorticoid treatment cause elevated level of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The basis of this phenomenon has long been linked to the effect of glucocorticoids permitting and enhancing the adipose lipolysis response to various hormones. In this study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids directly stimulate lipolysis in rat primary adipocytes in a dose- and time-responsive manner; this lipolytic action was attenuated by treatment with the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486. Dexamethasone down-regulates mRNA and protein levels of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, thereby elevating cellular cAMP production and activating protein kinase A (PKA). On inhibition of PKA but not other kinases, the lipolysis response ceases. Furthermore, dexamethasone induces phosphorylation and down-regulation of perilipin, a lipid droplet-associating protein that modulates lipolysis; this effect is restored by RU486 or PKA inhibitor H89. Dexamethasone up-regulates mRNA and protein levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase; these effects, parallel to increased lipolysis, are attenuated by RU486 or actinomycin D. Phosphorylation at Ser-563 and Ser-660 residues of HSL and activity of cellular lipases are elevated on dexamethasone stimulation but abrogated by the coaddition of H89. However, dexamethasone does not induce HSL translocation to the lipid droplet surface in differentiated adipocytes. We show that elevated FFA concentration in plasma is associated with increased lipase activity and lipolysis in vivo in adipose tissues of dexamethasone-treated rats. Therefore, the lipolytic action of glucocorticoids liberates FFA efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream, which could be a cellular basis of systemic FFA elevation in response to glucocorticoid challenge.

  E. S. Y Lee , Z Yin , D Milatovic , H Jiang and M. Aschner
 

Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) leads to a neurological disorder, manganism, which shares multiple common features with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). 17β-Estradiol (E2) and some selective estrogen receptor modulators, including tamoxifen (TX), afford neuroprotection in various experimental models of neurodegeneration. However, the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of E2/TX in Mn-induced toxicity have yet to be documented. Herein, we studied the ability of E2/TX to protect rat cortical primary neuronal and astroglial cultures from Mn-induced toxicity. Cell viability, Western blot, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed. Results established that both E2 (10nM) and TX (1µM) attenuated Mn-induced toxicity. The protective effects of E2/TX were more pronounced in astrocytes versus neurons. The E2-mediated attenuation of Mn-induced ROS generation in astrocytes at 6-h treatment (where no cell death was detected) was mediated by a classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway and the TX-mediated effect on Mn-induced ROS generation was not mediated via classical ER-dependent mechanisms and likely by its antioxidant properties. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was involved in both E2- and TX-induced attenuation of Mn-induced ROS formation (6 h) in astrocytes. Treatments with Mn for a longer duration (24 h) led to significant cell death, and the protective effects of E2 and TX were (1) not mediated by a classical ER pathway and (2) associated with activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that both E2 and TX offer effective therapeutic means for neuroprotection against Mn-induced toxicity.

 
 
 
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