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Articles by H Ishida
Total Records ( 10 ) for H Ishida
  K Fujita , H Nakayama , W Ichikawa , W Yamamoto , H Endo , F Nagashima , R Tanaka , T Miya , Y Sunakawa , K Yamashita , K Mizuno , H Ishida , K Araki , M Narabayashi , K Miwa , Y Ando , Y Akiyama , K Kawara , T Hirose and Y. Sasaki
 

S-1 is an oral anticancer agent that combines tegafur, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), an inhibitor of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. We examined the effects of aging on the pharmacokinetics of the components of S-1. The median area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of active 5-FU did not significantly differ between 10 patients 75 years or older and 53 patients younger than 75 years (P = 0.598, Mann-Whitney U test). It is interesting to note that the median oral clearance of tegafur in patients 75 years or older was significantly lower than that in patients younger than 75 years (P = 0.011). Furthermore, the median AUC of CDHP was significantly higher in patients 75 years or older than in those younger than 75 years (P = 0.004). This effect was caused by reduced renal function in the elderly, because CDHP is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration. The opposing effects of aging on the oral clearance of tegafur and the AUC of CDHP may offset each other, leading to unchanged systemic exposure of 5-FU.

  K Fujita , H Nakayama , W Ichikawa , W Yamamoto , H Endo , F Nagashima , R Tanaka , T Miya , Y Sunakawa , K Yamashita , K Mizuno , H Ishida , K Araki , M Narabayashi , K Miwa , Y Ando , Y Akiyama , K Kawara , T Hirose and Y. Sasaki
 

S-1 is an oral anticancer agent that combines tegafur, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), an inhibitor of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. We examined the effects of aging on the pharmacokinetics of the components of S-1. The median area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of active 5-FU did not significantly differ between 10 patients 75 years or older and 53 patients younger than 75 years (P = 0.598, Mann-Whitney U test). It is interesting to note that the median oral clearance of tegafur in patients 75 years or older was significantly lower than that in patients younger than 75 years (P = 0.011). Furthermore, the median AUC of CDHP was significantly higher in patients 75 years or older than in those younger than 75 years (P = 0.004). This effect was caused by reduced renal function in the elderly, because CDHP is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration. The opposing effects of aging on the oral clearance of tegafur and the AUC of CDHP may offset each other, leading to unchanged systemic exposure of 5-FU.

  Y Ishibashi , Y Nagamatsu , S Meyer , A Imamura , H Ishida , M Kiso , N Okino , R Geyer and M. Ito
 

Although 6-gala series glycosphingolipids possessing R-Gal (/β) 1-6Galβ1-1'Cer have been found in some mollusks, pathogenic parasites, and fungi, their physiological functions and metabolic pathway are not fully understood. We described a novel method of detecting 6-gala series glyco- sphingolipids utilizing the specificity of endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC), which is capable of hydrolyzing 6-gala series glycosphingolipids to produce intact oligosaccharides and ceramides. EGALC catalyzes not only hydrolysis but also a transglycosylation reaction. In the latter reaction, EGALC transfers oligosaccharides from the glycosphingolipids to acceptors such as fluorescent 1-alkanols. Based on the transglycosylation reaction of EGALC, a specific, easy, fast, sensitive, and reproducible method of detecting 6-gala series glycosphingolipids was developed using NBD-pentanol as an acceptor. The fluorescent products, NBD-pentanol-conjugated 6-gala oligosaccharides, were separated and detected by TLC or HPLC with a fluorescent detector. Moreover, it was revealed that as well as glycosphingolipids, a glycoglycerolipid, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, was utilized by EGALC as a donor substrate. This method was successfully applied to detect 6-gala series glycosphingolipids in a fungus, Rhizopus oryzae, and a parasite, Taenia crassiceps. The method would be useful for studying glycosphingolipids and galactosyl glycerolipids which share the Gal (/β) 1-6Gal structure.

  H Ishida , Y Miyake , M Fukunaga , Y Watanabe , T Kato , H Takemoto and H. Furukawa
  Objective

This is a feasibility trial of oral uracil/tegafur (UFT)/oral leucovorin (LV) and irinotecan (TEGAFIRI) with maximum dose confirmed in Japan. To document the toxicity and define the objective response rate (RR); and determine progression-free and overall survival.

Methods

Patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) received: UFT 300 mg/m2, LV 75 mg/body and CPT-11 150 mg/m2 (UFT and LV given on days 1–14, and CPT-11 on day 1, every 3 weeks). Eligibility: ECOG performance status (PS) 0–1, adequate bone marrow/liver function and serum creatinine level less than institutional normal value.

Results

Eighteen patients enrolled, 17 evaluable for toxicity and response and 1 patients recalled chemotherapy upon registration. Characteristics: 61% male, median age 63.5 years (51–71). Seventy-two per cent PS 0, 50% first line. One hundred and eighty-six cycles have been delivered. The common Grade 3–4 toxicities were neutropenia (35.3%), leukopenia (29.4%), diarrhea (5.9%), anorexia (5.9%), vomiting (5.9%) and dizziness (5.9%). There was no episode of febrile neutropenia. No death occurred on treatment: Overall RR was 41.2% [7/17: 1 complete response (CR) + 6 partial response (PR)]. Progression-free survival (PFS) is 6.9 months, median survival time (MST) is 25.1 months and 1-year survival rate is 70.6%, whereas PFS 15.0 months, MST 43.6+ months and 1-year survival rate 100% in cases with CR or PR.

Conclusions

Approved dose of CPT-11 is 150 mg/m2 in Japan. As is lower dose with CPT-11, TEGAFIRI for patients with advanced or metastatic CRC in Japan seems to have the similar effect with that reported abroad and indicates prolonged PFS and MST in cases with CR or PR.

  H Ajima , H Ogata , K. i Fujita , K Miwa , Y Sunakawa , K Mizuno , H Ishida , K Yamashita , H Nakayama , K Kawara , H Takahashi and Y. Sasaki
  Objective

Recently, significant progress in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer has been achieved. Either FOLFIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan) or modified FOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin, oxaliplatin dose 85 mg/m2) is selected as first-line therapy in clinical practice in Japan. However, economic burden of colorectal cancer is considerable.

Methods

Analysis was made for all patients who were treated with FOLFIRI or modified FOLFOX6 for metastatic colorectal cancer. Regimen of FOLFIRI was compared with modified FOLFOX6 under consideration from clinical and economic standpoints. Progression free survival, response, toxicity and cancer care cost in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was analyzed. Direct costs based on the fee schedule of the Japanese national health insurance were calculated.

Results

Median progression free survival was 7.7 months for FOLFIRI versus 8.4 months for modified FOLFOX6 (P = 0.48). Overall cost for first four cycles was ¥756 284 for FOLFIRI and ¥1 081 162 for modified FOLFOX6 (P < 0.0001). All grade alopecia was significantly more frequent with FOLFIRI than with modified FOLFOX6 (P = 0.04). All grade neuropathy was more observed with modified FOLFOX6 than FOLFIRI (P = 0.0002).

Conclusions

FOLFIRI is inexpensive in the initial stage of treatment which a number of patients can receive chemotherapy than modified FOLFOX6 as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in Japanese national insurance system.

  H Takeuchi , H Ishida , S Hikichi and T. Kurahashi
 

Olfactory masking has been used to erase the unpleasant sensation in human cultures for a long period of history. Here, we show a positive correlation between the human masking and the odorant suppression of the transduction current through the cyclic nucleotide–gated (CNG) and Ca2+-activated Cl (Cl(Ca)) channels. Channels in the olfactory cilia were activated with the cytoplasmic photolysis of caged compounds, and their sensitiveness to odorant suppression was measured with the whole cell patch clamp. When 16 different types of chemicals were applied to cells, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced responses (a mixture of CNG and Cl(Ca) currents) were suppressed widely with these substances, but with different sensitivities. Using the same chemicals, in parallel, we measured human olfactory masking with 6-rate scoring tests and saw a correlation coefficient of 0.81 with the channel block. Ringer's solution that was just preexposed to the odorant-containing air affected the cAMP-induced current of the single cell, suggesting that odorant suppression occurs after the evaporation and air/water partition of the odorant chemicals at the olfactory mucus. To investigate the contribution of Cl(Ca), the current was exclusively activated by using the ultraviolet photolysis of caged Ca, DM-nitrophen. With chemical stimuli, it was confirmed that Cl(Ca) channels were less sensitive to the odorant suppression. It is interpreted, however, that in the natural odorant response the Cl(Ca) is affected by the reduction of Ca2+ influx through the CNG channels as a secondary effect. Because the signal transmission between CNG and Cl(Ca) channels includes nonlinear signal-boosting process, CNG channel blockage leads to an amplified reduction in the net current. In addition, we mapped the distribution of the Cl(Ca) channel in living olfactory single cilium using a submicron local [Ca2+]i elevation with the laser photolysis. Cl(Ca) channels are expressed broadly along the cilia. We conclude that odorants regulate CNG level to express masking, and Cl(Ca) in the cilia carries out the signal amplification and reduction evenly spanning the entire cilia. The present findings may serve possible molecular architectures to design effective masking agents, targeting olfactory manipulation at the nano-scale ciliary membrane.

 
 
 
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