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Articles by H Hirakawa
Total Records ( 2 ) for H Hirakawa
  H Hirakawa , H Akita , T Fujiwara , M Sugai and S. Kuhara

ALE-1 is a glycylglycine endopeptidase that selectively targets and lyses Staphylococcus aureus, and is expected to be a next generation antibacterial agent because of its substrate specificity to pathogenic bacteria. It has a central catalytic domain and a targeting domain called 92AA. 92AA has been shown to recognize pentaglycine, but the molecular mechanism by which it recognizes and interacts with pentaglycine has not been elucidated. To predict the binding modes of pentaglycine is important for estimating the catalytic reaction mechanism of ALE-1. In the present study, we characterized the binding cleft of 92AA by a computational method and modeled the complexes formed between 92AA and the pentaglycine of peptidoglycan by a binding simulation. In addition, we performed precise simulations of the molecular dynamics by which the complexes identify the amino acid residues interacting with the pentaglycine. We also experimentally constructed mutants in which the amino acid residues present in the binding cleft were changed by site-directed mutagenesis and assessed their ability to bind to peptidoglycan by ELISA. Based on the results of these analyses, we proposed a mode of binding between 92AA and the pentaglycine of peptidoglycan, and modeled the energetically stable complexes between 92AA and the pentaglycine.

  H Hirakawa , H Sawada , Y Yamahama , S. I Takikawa , H Shintaku , A Hara , K Mase , T Kondo and T. Iino

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) acts as a cofactor of the aromatic amino-acid hydroxylases, and its deficiency may result in hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and decreased production of the neurotransmitters. BH4 is synthesized by sepiapterin reductase (SPR) from 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin (PPH4). A patient with SPR deficiency shows no HPA; however, an SPR knockout mouse exhibits HPA. We have reported on the SPR-unrelated novel biosynthetic pathway from PPH4 to BH4 (salvage pathway II) in which 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and aldose reductase work in concert. In this study, we performed the expression analysis of both proteins in humans and wild-type mice. The results of expression analysis indicated that salvage pathway II worked in human liver; however, it did not act in human brain or in mouse liver and brain. For this reason, a patient with SPR deficiency may show progressive neurological deterioration without HPA, and SPR knockout mice may exhibit HPA and abnormal locomotion activity.

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