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Articles by H Arai
Total Records ( 5 ) for H Arai
  A Yasoda , H Kitamura , T Fujii , E Kondo , N Murao , M Miura , N Kanamoto , Y Komatsu , H Arai and K. Nakao

Skeletal dysplasias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by severe impairment of bone growth. Various forms of them add to produce a significant morbidity and mortality, yet no efficient drug therapy has been developed to date. We previously demonstrated that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth. Furthermore, we exhibited that targeted overexpression of a CNP transgene in the growth plate rescued the impaired bone growth observed in a mouse model of achondroplasia (Ach), the most frequent form of human skeletal dysplasias, leading us to propose that CNP may prove to be an effective treatment for this disorder. In the present study, to elucidate whether or not the systemic administration of CNP is a novel drug therapy for skeletal dysplasias, we have investigated the effects of plasma CNP on impaired bone growth in Ach mice that specifically overexpress CNP in the liver under the control of human serum amyloid P component promoter or in those treated with a continuous CNP infusion system. Our results demonstrated that increased plasma CNP from the liver or by iv administration of synthetic CNP-22 rescued the impaired bone growth phenotype of Ach mice without significant adverse effects. These results indicate that treatment with systemic CNP is a potential therapeutic strategy for skeletal dysplasias, including Ach, in humans.

  T Yamaguchi , T Suzuki , H Arai , S Tanabe and Y. Atomi

Local hyperthermia has been widely used as physical therapy for a number of diseases such as inflammatory osteoarticular disorders, tendinitis, and muscle injury. Local hyperthermia is clinically applied to improve blood and lymphatic flow to decrease swelling of tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle). As for muscle repair following injury, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hyperthermia-induced muscle repair are unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of continuous heat stress on the differentiation of cultured mammalian myoblasts. Compared with control cultures grown at 37°C, incubation at 39°C (continuous mild heat stress; CMHS) enhanced myotube diameter, whereas myotubes were poorly formed at 41°C by primary human skeletal muscle culture cells, human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs), and C2C12 mouse myoblasts. In HSMMs and C2C12 cells exposed to CMHS, mRNA and protein levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type I were increased compared with the control cultures. The mRNA level of MyHC IIx was unaltered in HSMMs and decreased in C2C12 cells, compared with cells that were not exposed to heat stress. These results indicated a fast-to-slow fiber-type shift in myoblasts. We also examined upstream signals that might be responsible for the fast-to-slow shift of fiber types. CMHS enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator (PGC)-1 in HSMMS and C2C12 cells but not the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) in HSMMs and C2C12 cells. These data suggest that CMHS induces a fast-to-slow fiber-type shift of mammalian myoblasts through PGC-1.

  T Endo , K Kano , R Motoki , K Hama , S Okudaira , M Ishida , H Ogiso , M Tanaka , N Matsuki , R Taguchi , M Kanai , M Shibasaki , H Arai and J. Aoki

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple phospholipid but has numerous biological effects through a series of G-protein-coupled receptors specific to LPA. In general, LPA is short-lived when applied in vivo, which hinders most pharmacological experiments. In our continuing study to identify stable LPA analogues capable of in vivo applications, we identified here lysophosphatidylmethanol (LPM) as a stable and pan-LPA receptor agonist. A synthetic LPM activated all five LPA receptors (LPA1–5), and stimulates both cell proliferation and LPA-receptor-dependent cell motility. In addition, LPM showed a hypertensive effect in rodent when applied in vivo. We found that, when fetal calf serum was incubated in the presence of methanol, formation of LPM occurred rapidly, whereas it was completely blocked by depletion of autotaxin (ATX), a plasma enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to LPA. When recombinant ATX was incubated with LPC in the presence of methanol, both LPM and LPA were produced with a ratio of 1:10, showing that ATX has transphosphatidylation activity in addition to its lysophospholipase D activity. Administration of methanol in mice resulted in the formation of several micromoles of LPM in plasma, which is much higher than that of LPA. The present study identified LPM as a novel and stable lysophospholipid mediator with LPA-like activities and ATX as a potential synthetic enzyme for LPM.

  T Mogi , T Kawakami , H Arai , Y Igarashi , K Matsushita , M Mori , K Shiomi , S Omura , S Harada and K. Kita

To identify antibiotics targeting to respiratory enzymes, we carried out matrix screening of a structurally varied natural compound library with Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane-bound respiratory enzymes. We identified a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, siccanin (IC50, 0.9 µM), which is a potent antibiotic against some pathogenic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes and inhibits their mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. We found that siccanin was effective against enzymes from P. aeruginosa, P. putida, rat and mouse mitochondria but ineffective or less effective against Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and porcine mitochondria enzyme. Action mode was mixed-type for quinone-dependent activity and noncompetitive for succinate-dependent activity, indicating the proximity of the inhibitor-binding site to the quinone-binding site. Species-selective inhibition by siccanin is unique among succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, and thus siccanin is a potential lead compound for new chemotherapeutics.

  A Nakamura , H Arai and N. Fujita

Cohesin subunit Scc1 and Akt kinase–interacting protein 1 both localize to centrosomes and regulate the timing of centriole separation during mitosis.

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