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Articles by Gopal Reddy
Total Records ( 3 ) for Gopal Reddy
  Hazem Ramadan , Byungjin Min , Amit K. Tiwari , Gopal Reddy , Abiodun Adesiyun , Arthur Hinton Jr. and Woubit Abdela
  This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of peels of pomegranate (Punica grana), orange (Citrus siensis) and lemon (Limona taris) against four foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a food spoilage bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens. Inhibition tests were conducted in vitro using the disc diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) assays with the Bioscreen Microbiology analyzer. The study also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the extracts in situ by determining CFU/ml of bacteria recovered from rinsates of chicken skin treated with the peel extracts and by examining the microflora of treated skin samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial activity of all extracts, except the pomegranate ethanol extract, were dependent on the concentration of extract that the bacteria were exposed to during the trials. Treating the inoculated chicken skin with 5 mg/ml of either the five extracts produced significant (p<0.01) reductions in CFU/ml of MRSA, L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens recovered and the MRSA findings were supported by SEM observations. The antimicrobial activity of peel extracts of pomegranate, orange and lemon indicates that these extracts may be used as sanitizers to reduce microbial contamination of some foods and processing.
  Giang Nguyen , Magda Ismail Abo-Samaha , Gopal Reddy , Mohammed Abdulrahman , Temesgen Samuel , Abiodun Adesiyun and Woubit Abdela
  The most frequent bacteria contaminating raw meat samples from local retail outlets were determined. Comparison was made between conventional culture method (BIOLOG) and newly developed PCR assays performed on bacterial isolates (PCR-C), directly on enriched broths (Direct PCR-E) or on DNA extracted from enriched broths (PCR-E) of Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. Among 150 meat samples (chicken, pork, turkey and beef) tested, Campylobacter, Proteus, Listeria and Salmonella were detected in 27.0, 25.0, 19.0 and 3.3%, respectively, by using BIOLOG. Among 150 samples analyzed, the frequency of detection for C. jejuni, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium were 8.0, 2.7 and 2.0% by both the BIOLOG and PCR-C assays. PCR-C and BIOLOG detected the same number of positive samples, 12 for C. jejuni, 3 for S. Typhimurium, however from the total 4 L. monocytogenes, only 3 were isolated correctly by BIOLOG. Both Direct PCR-E and PCR-E detected 13, 2 and 1 positive samples for C. jejuni, S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, respectively. TaqMan PCR assay on enriched broths produced the most rapid and inhibition-free results compared with Direct PCR-E and PCR-C. The PCR-based methods provided results more rapidly (1-2 days versus 6-7 days) and therefore are recommended for improved detection of these pathogens.
  B. Hameeda , O.P. Rupela , S.P. Wani and Gopal Reddy
  Soil quality was assessed from four different treatment plots T1, T2, T3 and T4 of a long-term field experiment at ICRISAT, Patancheru. The four different crop-husbandry systems were: T1 = low-cost system 1, T2 = low-cost system 2, T3 = conventional system and T4 = same as T3+biomass as in T2. The parameters used in the study were nutrient, biological, microbial and crop yield. Treatment plots T1 and T2 showed substantially more nitrogen (15-29%) and phosphorus (17-23%), than that was added to T3, largely as chemical fertilizers. Biomass C and N of treatment plots T1 and T2 was also 22-35% more than T3. The overall results on microbial populations suggested that soil from plots T1 and T2 were more active than that of T3. Application of low-cost biological inputs improved soil health and increased yields of T1 and T2, which was at par or better than T3 and T4 plots, where chemicals were applied. A new approach was used to calculate sustainability index based on the area of a polygon, where the four vertices are represented by nutrient, biological, microbial and crop indices. The sustainability index of treatment plot T2 that received low cost biological inputs was highest (2.29) followed by T4 (2.10), T1 (2.07) and the least was with T3 (1.56).
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