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Articles by Girma Adugna
Total Records ( 3 ) for Girma Adugna
  Melkamu Tiru , Diriba Muleta , Gezahegn Berecha and Girma Adugna
  This study was designed to evaluate the antagonistic effects of rhizobacterial antagonists against Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) caused by Gibberella xylarioides under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Arabica coffee is Ethiopia’s main export crop. However, the production and productivity of coffee is being challenged primarily by coffee vascular disease (tracheomycosis).The greenhouse antagonism study was conducted with four antagonistic bacteria of one Bacillus (JU544) and three Pseudomonas spp. (JU941, JU13 and JU23). Out of 81 rhizobacterial antagonists tested on Half Strength King’s B (HSKB) medium against G. xylarioides, 13.6% of them significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radial mycelial growth of the pathogen. From 11 rhizobacterial isolates tested for their phytobeneficial traits, eight of them produced protease. Nevertheless, five of them produced Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and other lytic enzymes. The bio-control agents, time of applications and the interaction of the two were significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the CWD severity and incidence under greenhouse conditions. The CWD control efficiency was significant (p<0.0001) and the highest bio-control efficiency was 72.64% when the coffee seedlings were treated with Bacillus spp. (JU544) seven days before the pathogen. The bacterial antagonists, time of applications and interaction of the two significantly (p<0.001) reduced the progression of CWD incidence. The rhizobacterial antagonists especially Bacillus spp. (JU544) effectively reduced CWD severity and incidence under greenhouse condition and can be further evaluated under field condition to ascertain their future applicability for inoculum development.
  Sihen Getachew , Girma Adugna , Fikre Lemessa and H. Hindorf
  Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sample plots during dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2009. Concurrently, three to four samples of infected coffee trees were randomly collected from each plot and the causal pathogen was isolated and identified in the laboratory. The result indicted that CWD was prevalent in the four forest coffee sites, with mean incidence of 27.1 and 29.2% in Harenna during 2008 and 2009 wet seasons, respectively, followed by Berhane-Kontir with mean incidences of 22.1 (2008) and 27.7% (2009). Whereas, Bonga and Yayu forest coffees had comparatively low wilt severity (<10%). The wood samples of most of the infected coffee trees (90.6%) yielded Gibberella xylarioides in the laboratory proving that this pathogen is the main cause of coffee tree death in the forest. The difference in incidence of CWD across the four sites and among fields was strongly associated with human factors and variations in coffee populations. The forest coffee trees in Harenna and Berhane-Kontir (high CWD) are almost transformed to semiforest type by sub-planting coffee seedlings after thinning the dense vegetation cover. These activities are known to create wound to the host and disseminate the fungus spores from tree to tree and from one field to the other. The two independent seedling inoculation tests in the greenhouse evidenced that there were significant variations among coffee accessions in reactions to CWD though most accessions were susceptible. The study showed that CWD is one of the potential biotic factors threatening the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee in most forest coffee sites and thus the disease management practices should duly be considered in planning and implementing forest coffee conservation strategy.
  Binyam Tsedaley , Girma Adugna and Fikre Lemessa
  Background: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench) is the 5th most important food crop in the world. But its production in Ethiopia is adversely affected by different biotic and abiotic constraints among which sorghum anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is the major one. Methodology: In this perspective, it is imperative to assess the distribution and severity of sorghum anthracnose along varying agro-ecologies of Southwestern and Western Ethiopia. A total of 117 sorghum farms in 15 districts of 5 administrative zones within two regional states were assessed. Results: The disease was found to be widely distributed in all sorghum growing regions of the surveyed areas with 100% incidence. The severity of sorghum anthracnose varied significantly (p<0.001) among the 15 districts. The highest severity index of about 87.3 was recorded in Nejo while the lowest severity of about 59.5 was estimated in Leka Dulecha district. The disease was strongly influenced by altitudinal gradients, cropping system and weed management practices. Isolates of C. sublineolum collected from different areas showed variations in both cultural characteristics and conidia morphology, though all of them were pathogenic to sorghum but not to maize plants. Conclusion: Since, sorghum anthracnose is highly prevalent and very severe in all regions of Southwestern and Western parts of Ethiopia, giving due attention in developing effective management strategy is critical.
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