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Articles by Gilles Bernard Nkouam
Total Records ( 2 ) for Gilles Bernard Nkouam
  Cesar Kapseu , Gilles Bernard Nkouam , Michel Dirand , Danielle Barth , Laurent Perrin and Clerge Tchiegang
  The water vapour adsorption and desorption isotherms in sheanuts kernels were determined at 25, 35 45 and 55įC. The static micro-gravimetric method using a Sartorius 4201 electromagnetic suspension microbalance was employed in the study. The sorption process was modelled by the BET, Oswin, Smith and the GAB equations while the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the net isosteric heats of sorption. The results showed a hysteresis effect between adsorption and desorption curves. The moisture content of the monolayer significantly depended on temperature and varied from 4.16 to 1.47% in adsorption and from 4.41 to 2.29% for desorption (GABís equation). The BET equation gave a lower range of 2.37 to 1.25% for adsorption and 3.41 to 1.59% for desorption. The sorption isotherms were best described by the GAB and Oswin models. The net isosteric heats of desorption (28.38 kJ moL-1) were greater than those of adsorption (21.98 kJ moL-1).
  Gilles Bernard Nkouam , Cesar Kapseu , Danielle Barth , Michel Dirand and Jean Bosco Tchatchueng
  Oil extraction using CO2 from sheanut kernel (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) and Canarium pulp (Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl.)has been studied in comparison with hexane extraction. Samples that were stored at 18 C and -33 C, were analyzed after 1 month, 1 year and 2 years. Results showed that the extraction yields varied (dry basis) from 17.43-39.57% for shea butter and from 16.10-40.45% for Canarium oil. Lipids extracted with CO2 gave highest acid values, but lowest iodine values what irrespective of the storage temperature. Shea butter analysis by gaseous phase chromatography indicated a composition in stearic and oleic acids that did not vary significantly. Butter extracted with supercritical CO2 from sheanut kernel stored at 18 C were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results suggest that greater investigations on supercritical CO2 extraction of these fatty materials should be encouraged because of its selectivity.
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