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Articles by Ghulam Muhammad
Total Records ( 3 ) for Ghulam Muhammad
  Summaiya Baloch , Muhammad Kamran Taj , Imran Taj , Ghulam Muhammad , Abdul Aziz , Wajid Ali , Firdous Bugti , Nasir Ahmed Rind , Farooq Shehzad and Saeed Ahmed Essote
  Background and Objective: Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in children under 5 years of age and older adults. Therefore; the present research was design to study the different microbiological aspects of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 sputum samples were collected from pneumonia patient at different government hospitals of Quetta. The detail of patient’s gender, age, economical status and educational status were taken on performa. Sputum samples were inoculated into selective strep agar Streptococcus pneumonia colonies were observed on plates and confirmed through different biochemical tests and PCR. Results: Total 480 samples were collected in which 36.6% were Streptococcus pneumoniae positive and 63.3% were negative. The sex wise ratio showed that female (24.10%) were more affected with pneumoniae as compare to male (12.50%). The pneumonia infection age wise distribution was 9% in 1-10 years old patients, 16% in 10-20 years old patients and 11% in 20-30 years old patients. The status wise distribution of pneumonia infection showed that lower class (16%) was more affected as compare to middle class and higher class of Quetta. The percentage of pneumonia infection in hazara race was 14%, in Pathan 8.30%, in Punjabi 7.60% and in Baloch 6.60%. It was seen that illiterate patients were more affected with pneumonia infection (28.3%) than literate (8.3%). The Streptococcus pneumoniae was confirmed through gram staining, different biochemical tests, different sugar fermentation tests and PCR. Whereas confirmed by PCR showed clear band of 329 kb of ply gene. Conclusion: It was concluded that the rate of pneumonia infection was high in female and lower class was more affected with pneumonia.
  Malala Panezai , Muhammad Kamran Taj , Imran Nawaz , Imran Taj , Marina Panezai , Nazia Panezai , Umbreen Zafar , Durdana Ghulam Muhammad , Saeed Ahmed Essote and Ghulam Muhammad
  Background and Objective: Salmonella paratyphi cause enteric fever which is an important public health problem worldwide. In Pakistan incidence is increasing and affect all age groups. Therefore, the present research was designed to study the different microbiological aspects of Salmonella paratyphi. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to identify the Salmonella paratyphi from blood samples in Quetta. Total 480 blood samples were collected from different hospital of Quetta. Specific colony characters, microscopic examination, biochemical tests and PCR were used for identification of Salmonella paratyphi. Results: Total 55% samples were positive and 45% were negative for Salmonella paratyphi. Results showed that males (34%) were more affected with Salmonella paratyphi as compare to female (20%). Age wise distribution revealed that Salmonella paratyphi was high in 20-30 years (38%) followed by 10-20 years (9.16%) and 1-10 years (7.5%) age group patients. Paratyphoid fever cases were significantly high (25.41%) in Pashtoon population as compare to other population of Balochistan. The 40% paratyphoid fever was observed in the patients with low socioeconomic status, 9.16% in middle socioeconomic status and 5.83% in the patients belonged to high socioeconomic status. The Salmonella paratyphi were sensitive to Chloramphenicol (23 mm), Amikacin (24 mm), Gentamicin (12 mm), Quinolones (23) and Polypeptide (13 mm) classes. The PCR based identification of Salmonella paratyphi showed clear bands of 329 bp of flic-a gene. Conclusion: To control paratyphoid fever strong initiatives must be taken to improve water sanitation, hygiene level, supply of save drinking water and vaccination is recommended in order to eradicate the disease.
  Mohammad Saleem Khan , Sajid Rashid Ahmad , Muhammad Mushtaq and Ghulam Muhammad
  The groundwater has unique importance as protected nutrition source for survival of sustainable life against the growing surface water contamination. Groundwater receives its recharge from surface water as a part of hydrologic cycle but due to filtration process through various layers remains protected. However the water in the unconfined aquifer is more quickly influenced and gets contaminated due to industrial and other anthropogenic activities. The extra ordinary recharge from dams located at elevation is capable to induce water logging conditions in the downstream areas. The investigation in the Dhamrah Kas Basin shows that the groundwater fluctuations are being controlled by the reservoir filling and depletion in the Khanpur dam. As a result the water table is forced to fluctuate between elevations of 1640 to 1670 feet. The maximum rise of 42 feet has been recorded since the construction of Khanpur Dam during 1983. Hence due to the rise of water table the probability of groundwater contamination has been increased many folds. However stagnancy trend in the water table since 1992 reveals sealing of discontinuities due to sedimentation, so there are no chances of water logging due to Khanpur dam in the study area.
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