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Articles by George John
Total Records ( 8 ) for George John
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , A. Stalin , V. Masilamani and George John
  A study was carried out to determine the influence of a commercial probiotic (‘Aqualact’) and dried leaf powder of Cassia auriculata against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Histological studies in the hepatopancreas and gills of prawns, during infectivity trials, showed bacterial invasion and multiplication in their lumens. Oedema and cell necrosis were the major pathological changes observed in gills and hepatopancreas. Degenerative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins were proportional to the concentration of vibrios infected. Infected prawns fed on probiotic supplemented feed could show a regaining trend towards normal protein bands. Marked reduction in mortality could be observed in infected prawns fed on feed supplemented with probiotic as well as with powdered Cassia auriculata leaves.
  George John , Razack Rafi Mohamed , Pachaan Kolanchinathan and Athmanathan Balasundaram
  Background and Objective: Formulation of probiotic mixtures for marine shrimps are still not perfect, the concept of probiotics is totally unfamiliar for freshwater-cultured prawns. This study was an attempt to evaluate the nutritional efficacy of two putative probiotic strains Bacillus subtilis RCMB21 and Pseudomonas fluorescens RCMB39. Materials and Methods: Bacillus subtilis RCMB21 and Pseudomonas fluorescens RCMB39 were separately in a commercial formulated feed for shrimps. (1) Coating the feed, with agar as the binder and (2) Fermentation of the feed with bacteria. Feeding experiments were conducted for 60 days on Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii) with probiotic incorporated diet and growth and nutritional quality improvement of the prawn were assessed. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS. Results: Bacillus subtilis coated diet, the increased weight was 3.5 times over the initial and 2.7 times for Pseudomonas fluorescens coated feed at the end of 60 days. Similar results were obtained for protein, carbohydrate and lipid. Electrophoresis of muscle showed dense intense polypeptide fractions of 200, 70, 40 and 20 kD. Fatty acid profile of prawns showed 47.43% saturated fatty acids, 13.71% monoenes and 38.8% of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Based on growth and biochemical studies, it could be assumed that bacteria coated diets performed better over diets fermented with bacteria. Between the bacteria incorporated, Bacillus subtilis had more beneficial properties.
  Viju Moses , Narayani V. Mahendri , George John , John Victor Peter and Alka Ganesh
  Introduction. Early institution of enteral feeds may be associated with improved outcomes in the critically ill. This study evaluated the effect of hypocaloric enteral nutritional supplementation in acute organophosphate(OP)-poisoned patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Settings and design. Prospective randomized controlled trial conducted in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Patients and methods. During a 13-month period, 87 OP-poisoned patients were admitted. Twenty-seven patients who were not ventilated were excluded. Thirty patients were randomized to the control arm and 29 to the intervention arm. The intervention arm received hypocaloric nasogastric feeds within 48 h of intubation whilst the control arm received intravenous fluids. Primary outcome was infectious complications. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, duration of ventilation, ICU stay, and hospital stay. Results. An infectious complication occurred in 14 patients (48%) in the intervention group and 15 patients (50%) in the control group (p = 0.898). Three patients in each group died (p = 0.965). Duration of ventilation (p = 0.19) and ICU stay (p = 0.41) were similar. Duration of hospital stay was shorter in the control group (p = 0.05). Gastric stasis occurred in two patients (6.9%) receiving enteral feeds. Feeding related complications were less frequent than in other published trials. Conclusions. In OP-poisoned patients, early hypocaloric enteral feeding was not associated with improvements in clinical endpoints, albeit longer hospital stay was observed in the enterally fed group. Feeding related complications were infrequent. Further studies would help define the status of early enteral feeding in this subset of patients.
  Kishore Pichamuthu , Jayakumar Jerobin , Anupama Nair , George John , Joseph Kamalesh , Kurien Thomas , Arun Jose , Jude Joseph Fleming , Anand Zachariah , Suresh S. David , Dolly Daniel and John Victor Peter
  Traditional treatment of organophosphate poisoning (OP) with oximes has had limited success. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or albumin, acting as bioscavengers to mop up free organophosphate, has been recently proposed as a treatment modality. In this pilot open-label, three-arm, randomized controlled study exploring proof of concept, we evaluated if bioscavenger therapy had a role in OP. Patients and methods. Sixty patients with significant poisoning presenting within 12 hours, with suppression of pseudocholinesterase activity to < 1,000 U/L, were randomized to receive FFP (8 bags, 250 mL each over 3 days), 20% human albumin (4 × 100 mL over 3 days), or saline (2,000 mL over 3 days) in addition to atropine and supportive care. Pseudocholinesterase and organophosphate levels were measured pretreatment, post-infusion (Day 2, Day 3), and predischarge and expressed as mean ± standard error. The incidence of intermediate syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, atropine requirement, and mortality were assessed. Results. Twenty patients received albumin and 19 patients each FFP or saline. FFP increased pseudocholinesterase levels (250 ± 44–1,241 ± 364 U/L) significantly (p = 0.007). Small, nonsignificant increases were observed with saline (160 ± 30–259 ± 78) and albumin (146 ± 18–220 ± 61). Organophosphate levels reduced in all 3 arms; no clear-cut trends were observed. We observed more cases of intermediate syndrome with FFP [10/19 (53%) vs. 5/20 (25%) vs. 5/19 (26%), FFP, albumin, and saline arms (p = 0.15)]. The interventions did not affect ventilatory requirements (14/19 vs. 15/20 vs. 14/19) or prevent delayed intubation. There were no differences in mean (±standard error) atropine requirement (in milligrams) in the first 3 days (536 ± 132 vs. 361 ± 125 vs. 789 ± 334) and duration (in days) of ventilation (10.0 ± 2.1 vs. 7.1 ± 1.5 vs. 7.5 ± 1.5) or hospital stay (12.4 ± 2.2 vs. 9.8 ± 1.4 vs. 9.8 ± 1.6). Two patients developed adverse effects with FFP. Mortality was similar (4/19 vs. 5/20 vs. 2/19, p = 0.6). Conclusions. Despite significant increase in pseudocholinesterase levels with FFP, this pilot study did not demonstrate favorable trends in clinical outcomes with FFP or albumin.
  George John , P. Rathna Kumari and A. Balasundaram
  Present study was carried out to assess the influence of three medicinal plants, Ocimum bascilicum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis on the biochemical parameters of normal and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected fish-labeo rohita. Fish of length, 5-9 cm were selected for the experiment. Five sets each of healthy live specimens and A. hydrophila-infected fish were kept in parallel pairs and each pair of fish sets were fed ad libitum for 15 days on one of the following compounded feeds: namely, normal fish feed (control groups), feeds supplemented at 3% concentrations with extracts of three plants. At the culmination of feeding experiment, biochemical analysis of serum for enzymes Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Phospho Transferase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, total sugars, serum protein were carried out from each set. Highest level of SGOT, SGPT, ACP was recorded in Ocimum basilicum supplemented group (60.0, 54.1, 26.3 mg dL-1). When infected maximum level was also observed in Ocimum basilicum supplemented group for SGOT, ACP (22.3, 19.3 mg dL-1) and for SGPT in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (17.5 mg dL-1). Lipid profile show contrasting result with maximum value recorded in infected animals, triglyceride and cholesterol showed maximum value in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (88.2, 96.4 mg dL-1) and for total sugar Ocimum basilicum supplemented group recorded maximum (96.3 mg dL-1). Highest serum protein content was in Calendula officinalis supplemented group (6.0 mg dL-1) and in infected animals in control with 3.2 mg dL-1. This study revealed that feed supplementation of three medicinal plant extracts alters biochemical parameters to overcome disease induced stress in fishes.
  Pachaan Kolanchinathan , Padmanabhan Rathna Kumari , Thiagarajan Shalini Gnanam , George John and Athmanathan Balasundaram
  Background and Objective: The probiotics used in marine shrimp farms are based predominantly on the terrestrial probiotic and their modes of action are not established well. This study was an attempt to evaluate the performance efficiency of two putative probiotic strains, on the growth, survival, biochemical enhancement, immune expression and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon. Materials and Methods: The three feed trial groups in the study composed of (1) B. coagulans (BSCB-2), (2) B. firmus (BSCB-13) and (3) The mixed bacterial diet group comprising equal proportion of the two bacterial strains. The selected strains were incorporated in specific quantities in the compounds shrimp feed and were fed to P. monodon for 15 days, after a pathogen challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus. Growth, biochemical and immune parameters were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 10.5. Results: Mean weight gain (g), mean length gain (cm), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) significantly increased (p<0.05) in the combined bacterial diet group compared to other groups. The biochemical constituents such as protein and glycogen were also significantly higher (p<0.05) in bacterial diet group, while lipid variation was insignificant. Total Haemocyte Count (THC) was significantly higher in B. firmus fed group (1584±6.0). Gradual decrease in THC was observed generally after infection. Maximum reduction was observed in control animals (561±5.0). Prophenol oxidase activity was higher in B. coagulans group (7.3±0.2 U min–1 mg–1 of protein), while decrease in Prophenol oxidase activity was observed in control animals (1.7±0.1 U min–1 mg–1 of protein). The NBT activity significantly increased (p<0.05) in B. firmus (4.21±0.2) supplemented group. A gradual decrease in nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity was observed in control animal group (0.88±0.1). Bacterial clearance was enumerated in the haemolyph from the time of Vibrio injection. There was an initial spurt of Vibrios when cultured in the selective medium TCBS for all the three treatments. A gradual decrease in Vibrio count was observed after 24 h duration. Conclusion: It is concluded that oral administration of probiotics led to their adherence in shrimp digestive tract. Also, Probiotic supplementation increased the resistance of shrimps to V. alginolyticus infection and brought about increased survival.
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , P. Kolanchinathan , V. Masilamani and George John
  The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila.
  A. Balasundaram , P. Rathna Kumari , George John and B.N. Selvakumar
  The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Clitoria ternatea and Achyranthes aspera on urinary pathogens. Urinary pathogens were isolated from 127 urine samples taken from subjects diagnosed with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Microorganisms were plated on Muller-Hinton agar. Plant extracts were tested by disc diffusion method and the zones of inhibition against pathogenic strains were measured. Clitoria ternatea and Achyranthes aspera showed antimicrobial activity against seven and five strains of urinary pathogens, respectively. Interestingly both plants showed antimicrobial activity against MRSA (Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus). These results showed that crude plant extracts has wide range of antibacterial activity against UTI pathogen particularly against MRSA.
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