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Articles by Gavin J. D. Smith
Total Records ( 2 ) for Gavin J. D. Smith
  Wai Lan Wu , Yixin Chen , Pui Wang , Wenjun Song , Siu-Ying Lau , Jane M. Rayner , Gavin J. D. Smith , Robert G. Webster , J. S. Malik Peiris , Tianwei Lin , Ningshao Xia , Yi Guan and Honglin Chen
  Antigenic profiles of post-2002 H5N1 viruses representing major genetic clades and various geographic sources were investigated using a panel of 17 monoclonal antibodies raised from five H5N1 strains. Four antigenic groups from seven clades of H5N1 virus were distinguished and characterized based on their cross-reactivity to the monoclonal antibodies in hemagglutination inhibition and cell-based neutralization assays. Genetic polymorphisms associated with the variation of antigenicity of H5N1 strains were identified and further verified in antigenic analysis with recombinant H5N1 viruses carrying specific mutations in the hemagglutinin protein. Modification of some of these genetic variations produced marked improvement to the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of H5N1 strains in assays utilizing monoclonal antibodies and ferret antisera raised against clade 1 and 2 H5N1 viruses, suggesting that these sites represent antigenically significant amino acids. These results provide a comprehensive antigenic profile for H5N1 virus strains circulating in recent years and will facilitate the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of H5N1 virus and aid in the selection of vaccine strains.
  J. Wang , D. Vijaykrishna , L. Duan , J. Bahl , J. X. Zhang , R. G. Webster , J. S. M. Peiris , H. Chen , Gavin J. D. Smith and Y. Guan
  The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (≥99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
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