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Articles by Ganiyat K. Oloyede
Total Records ( 4 ) for Ganiyat K. Oloyede
  Ganiyat K. Oloyede , Elizabeth Fisayo-Bambi and Tochukwu E. Nwachukwu
  Substituted benzenes were used in the synthesis of Mannich bases 1-Phenylaminomethyl-naphthalen-2-ol (MB1) and (2-{ [2-hydroxy ethyl) amino] methyl}phenyl) phenyl peroxyanhydride (MB2) and were characterised by ultraviolet/visible and infra-red spectroscopies. Peaks due to functional groups OH, CO and NH were prominent. Sharp melting points at 134°C (MB1) and 122°C (MB2) and Rf values confirmed the purity of the compounds. The two compounds were practically insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonellae typhi, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillum notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer but significant inhibitory effect was observed with Staphylococcus aereus and Bacillus subtilis when compared with standards, gentamicin and tioconazole for bacteria and fungi respectively. These Mannich bases can therefore serve as lead in the synthesis of antimicrobial agents.
  Ganiyat K. Oloyede and Blessing H. Ojeyinka
  Background and Objective: Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) is an important vegetable crop because of the numerous uses of the fresh leaves, buds, flowers, pods, stems and seeds as food and medicine. Effect of polar and non-polar solvent on the chemical composition and phytochemical properties of A. esculentus pods’ oils was determined since polarity of solvent has relative effect on the extractives which include chemical and nutritional constituents. Materials and Methods: The pods’ oil was extracted using hexane and methanol and the chemical constituent was determined using Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) while the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and total phenolic content measurement methods. Results: The result revealed that the oil obtained from hexane contained more phytochemicals, 19 constituents dominated with palmitic acid, 10, 13-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate while palmitic acid, methyl ester, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate were identified as the major compounds in the methanol extract containing 11 constituents. The methanol extract with 77.7% scavenging activity was significant in the antioxidant assay using the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) when compared with ascorbic acid used as standard. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the hexane extract contain more fatty acid ester than the methanol extract but the methanol extract has free radical scavenging ability when compared with the hexane extract.
  Ganiyat K. Oloyede and Olukoyejo E. Ayanbadejo
  Phytochemicals responsible for toxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from Laportea aestuans (Gaud) were investigated. Secondary metabolites detected were alkaloids, tannins, resins, saponins and carbohydrate. Flavonoids, sterols, cardiac glycosides, phenols, glycosides were however beyond detectable limit. Brine shrimp lethality test on the partition fractions revealed that hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were toxic with a lethal dose (LC50) less than 1000 μ mL-1 while the crude methanol extract with LC50 greater than 1000 μ mL-1 was non-toxic. The antimicrobial assay of the crude extract and their fractions were carried out by agar well diffusion and pour plate methods against 6 bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellae pneumonae, Salmonella typhi) and 4 fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolon, Penicillum notatum). All the extracts had broad spectrum antimicrobial effect at the various concentrations when compared with gentamicin and tioconazole (antibacterial and antifungal standards respectively). The antioxidant activity of L. aestuans was determined by three methods; scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging effect and ferric thiocynate methods and it was revealed the fractions possessed significant antioxidant activity when compared with antioxidant standards butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol used in the assay.
  Ganiyat K. Oloyede
  The antioxidant activity of two methanolic fractions (C1, C2) of R. communis was determined by three methods: Lipid peroxidation by ferric thiocyanate method and free radical scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical generated from hydrogen peroxide. C1 and C2 at various concentration possessed significant antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared with antioxidant standards Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol used in the assay. C1 had percentage inhibition of 93.98% while C2 gave 90.10% inhibition at 0.8 mg mL-1 in the lipid peroxidation/ferric thiocyanate test. In the DPPH assay, C1 had inhibition of 73.71% while C2 gave 87.92% at 1.0 mg mL-1. While in the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, the inhibition of C1 was 85.07% while that of C2 was 94.91% at 0.1 mg mL-1, both extracts therefore, showed comparative antioxidant activities at the concentrations used. C1 golden brown coloured oil was analysed using gas chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Four components were obtained, Methyl ricinoleate (46.68%), Ricinoleic acid (34.41%), (Z, Z)-9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.99%) and (Z, Z)-9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (5.92%). These chemical constituents were assumingly responsible for the observed antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from R. communis seeds.
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