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Articles by Gamal Enan
Total Records ( 11 ) for Gamal Enan
  Gamal Enan , Gamal El-Didamony , El-Hellaly Mohamed and Azza Zakaria
  The present study was an endeavour to select a probiotic bacteria inhibitory to human pathogenic bacteria. Characterization of bacteria by methods based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characters were followed herein and bacteriocin activity was a scope of the present study. Out of 20 isolates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from urine of healthy people, one isolate only: the NM2 strain inhibited other bacterial isolates isolated from patients with urinogenital infections and other bacterial pathogens of our strain collection. Based on biochemical, phenotypic characteristics and sequences of 16S rRNA gene the NM2 strain was identified as belonging to Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium NM2) and its two sensitive strains TW5; TCH4 were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis TW5); Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia TCH4). The inhibitory activity of cell free supernatant (CFS) of the NM2 strain was lost by proteolytic enzymes, heat resistant and was not affected by organic solvents, lipase and amylase. Consequently the active substance in CFS was proved to be of proteinaceous nature and was, therefore, characterized as a bacteriocin. This bacteriocin was active at acidic pH levels (pH 2.0-6.5) and its activity was lost at neutral and alkaline pH values; indicating on wider application of this bacteriocin.
  Gamal Enan , Abdul-Raouf Al- Mohammadi , Gamal El- Didamony , Mahmoud E.F. Abdel- Haliem and Azza Zakaria
  Cell Free Supernatants (CFS) containing bacteriocin of Enterococcus faecium NM2 (E. faecium NM2) isolated from urine inhibited many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. It also inhibited the Candida albicans M2 fungus. The antibiotic sensitivity test of the indicator bacteria showed that these strains were resistant to 60-75% of the antibiotics used. The E. faecium NM2 bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration and a 3600 fold-increase in specific activity of bacteriocin was obtained. The purified bacteriocin showed an apparent molecular mass of Ca, 5 KDa. Amino acid analysis showed that the E. faecium NM2 bacteriocin consists of 16 amino acids with high content of glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and asparagine. The E. faecium NM2 bacteriocin was designated enterocin NM2 and showed a bactericidal action on sensitive bacterial strains used. Enterocin NM2 could be classified as a novel variant within class IIc bacteriocins.
  Seham Abdel-Shafi , Sahar M. Ouda , Ibrahim Elbalat and Gamal Enan
  The isolation of multidrug resistant bacteria from Egyptian patients showed a great interest to study such phenomenon. Hence, simple methods were followed herein to isolate and characterize the antibiotic resistant variants by the common phenotypic, morphological and biochemical characters. Out of 500 clinical bacterial cultures, 50 only were multidrug resistant bacteria with a value of drug resistance ability of about 10%. About 46% of multidrug resistant bacterial cultures tested were isolated from urine samples. The percentage values of both resistance and susceptibility of the 50 multidrug resistant bacterial isolates to 14 types of antibiotics were calculated. Based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics, the 50 multidrug resistant bacterial isolates were identified and categorized into eight groups. The identified bacterial species were arranged in a descending order according to their frequency percentage viz. Escherichia coli>Staphylococcus aureus> Pseudomonas aeruginosa> Klebsiella pneumoniae>Streptococcus pyogenes> Proteus vulgaris>Streptococcus pneumoniae> Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The relationship between pathogenic cases, symptoms and the identified multidrug bacterial pathogens was studied. A simple key was designed for easy differentiation and classification of the 50 multidrug resistant bacterial organisms. It was based on easily determinable characteristics which were used for rapid assignment of bacteria into genera and species.
  Gamal Enan , Seham Abdel-Shafi , Sahar M. Ouda and Ibrahim El-Balat
  It is of interest to understand the antibiotic resistance ability in pathogenic bacteria at the molecular level. Characterization of bacteria by methods based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characters were followed herein; and plasmids were certain target in the present study. Seventeen bacterial isolates were isolated from urine, blood and stool samples of patients with urinary tract infections, bloody diarrhea and fever. They were characterized by phenotypic and biochemical criteria and were identified as belonging to Escherichia coli (E. coli). One of them, isolate number 4 from urine (UR4) was resistant to 14 types of antibiotics used. Hence this strain was subjected to molecular identification. DNA was isolated from E. coli UR4 and 16SrRNA gene was separated after agarose gel electrophoresis and then was sequenced. The sequence was subjected to gene bank and showed about 99.5% similarity to E. coli category. Growing of E. coli UR4 at elevated temperature (42°C) and treatment of colonies with sodium dodycyl sulphate, sodium azide and ethidium bromide revealed a mutants lacking antibiotic resistance ability with mutation percentage ranging from 0.6-14%. The mutation in E. coli UR4 was a stable character and no recovery of mutants was observed. Plasmid profile of the E. coli UR4 wild strain and its four mutants showed five plasmids in the wild strain and four only in its mutants. One plasmid of a molecular mass of about 600 bp is showed to be deficient or dissociated indicating on its role in antibiotic resistance ability in the E. coli UR4 strain.
  Ghada M. Khalil , Ibrahim El-Balat , Azza Abou Zeid , Abdul-Raouf Al-Mohammadi and Gamal Enan
  Background and Objectives: Characterization and inhibition by probiotics of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing renal failure patients and receiving hemodialysis were the target of this study. The prime objective of this study was to study the prevalence of MDR within Egyptian renal failure patients and to inhibit them by probiotics. Materials and Methods: The pathogenic bacteria were isolated from clinical samples and were then characterized by biochemical and molecular methods. Inhibition of MDR bacteria by cell free supernatants (CFS) from the probiotic Enterococcus bacium NM2 (E. faecium NM2) was studied in vitro. Results: One hundred bacterial isolates were isolated and into 76% Gram negative bacilli and 24% Gram positive cocci. Based on characterization of such isolates, 7 groups were found and could be arranged in the following descending order according to number of strains identified: Escherichia coli (E. coli, 35%) >Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae, 18%) >Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 17%) >Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, 16%) >Proteus vulgaris (Prot. vulgaris, 8%) >Staph. Saprophyticus (4%) >Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes, 2%). Susceptibility of such bacteria to antibiotics was studied and the more resistant strains (4 strains) were characterized by 16S rRNA cataloging analysis. CFS obtained from the probiotic bacterium E. faecium NM2 inhibited distinctively the growth of 4 MDR bacterial strains (RF22, RF27, RF51, RF55). Conclusion: One hundred bacterial isolates obtained from hemodialysis patients were isolated and identified herein. About 20% of such isolates were MDR. CFS from E. faecium NM2 inhibited the more MDR bacteria.
  Gamal Enan , Khalid A. Shaaban , Ahmed Askora and Muhammad Maher
  This research described a preliminary studies for controlling two Escherichia coli strains (E. coli W1 and E. coli W2) isolated from polluted water by their novel coliphages which identified herein and designated ECP1, ECP2 and ECP3. E. coli W1 and E. coli W2 strains were isolated from polluted water and identified using usual cultural, Morphological and Biochemical Methods. Three bacteriophages lysing E. coli strains were isolated. The bacteriophage lysing E. coli W1 (coliphage1) was designated ECP1 while coliphage2, coliphage3 were highly specific to infect E. coli W2 and consequently have been designated ECP2, ECP3, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the ECP1, ECP2 and ECP3 coliphages belong to family Myoviridae. Increasing host age lead to inhibition of coliphage infectivity. The ECP1, ECP2 and ECP3 coliphages exhibited different rates of adsorption and burst sizes but they possessed the same latent and rise periods (30 min). The host range of the three coliphages suggested that these coliphages may be useful as biocontrol agents. Addition of ECP1, ECP2 and ECP3 coliphages to their hosts decreased viable cell population of their host E. coli W1, W2 distinctively in vitro.
  Gamal Enan , Khalid A. Shaaban , Ahmed Askora and Muhammad Maher
  Three coliphages designated ECP1, ECP2 and ECP3 were identified in this study. Also, the effect of some physical factors on the infectivity of these coliphages was studied. The three coliphages were tested for their infectivity using the indicator bacterial strains E. coli W1 and E. coli W2 where coliphage ECP1 was highly specific to infect E. coli W1, on the other hand, coliphages ECP2 and ECP3 were highly specific to infect E. coli W2. The three coliphages were very sensitive to heat inactivation no survivors could be recorded after 10 min of exposure time up to 60°C. Also, the profile of the three coliphages inactivation after different time intervals exposed to UV-irradiation at different heights of 15 and 30 cm from the irradiation source was examined. Increased UV-irradiation doses decreased the plaque numbers of the three coliphages tested. The effect of different pH values on stability of the three coliphages was also tested. Maximum stability was observed at pH 6.0. The viabilities of the three coliphages were rapidly decreased towards alkalinity compared to pH 6.0. The ability of the three coliphages to form plaques at preservative temperature range 3-5, 25-28 and 35-37°C was examined. The suitable storage temperatures for the three coliphages were 3-5 and 25-28°C.
  Gamal Enan , Talaat I. EL-Sayed , Dina Atef , Mahmoud Amer and Ahmed Mahdy
  A historical overview about candidiasis was provided herein. The main causal pathogens of candidiasis are C. albicans, C. Tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. guilliermonndii, C. kefyr, C. utilis, C. inconspicua, C. rugosa and C. catenulata. There are also few Candida sp., involved in human infection in only immunocompromized patients. The pathogenicity of Candida sp. are due to ability to adhere smooth tissue surfaces, biofilm formation and production of many virulence factors such as hydrolytic enzymes. Candidiasis is diagnosed by microscopic detection, culture media, serology and molecular fingerprints using either DNA or RNA isolated from the causal pathogen. Candidiasis is treated by many synthetic antifungal agents. The antifungal agents in development are discussed in this review study. The recent prospectives about use of natural extracts as an antifungal agents are also discussed.
  Gamal Enan , Mai Mamdouh , Sally Negm , A.A. Ismaiel and Seham Abdel-Shafi
  Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are economically important organisms and existed in foods, soil, intestinal gut of animals, used as starter cultures for food fermentations such as yoghurt, cheese, pickles, sausages, fermented fish and fermented fruits. LAB are gram positive, catalase negative and non-spore forming rods or cocci. LAB include recently many genera such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Carnobacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Vagococcus, Pediococcus, Allojococcus, Tetragenococcus and Weisella. A key for differentiation of LAB into genera is illustrated in this review and is based on easily determinable characteristics allowing a rapid assignment of a new isolate to any LAB genera. LAB produce organic acids, diacetyl, H2O2, ethanol, acetaldehyde, bacteriocins and antifungal substances. They are recently used as starter cultures for food fermentations with their use as probiotics, since, they were approved recently to tolerate acidic conditions of stomach, tolerate bile acids and bile salts of intestine and attach smooth human tissues. The medicinal uses of probiotics are discussed in the present review.
  Talaat I. EL-Sayed , Dina Atef , Mahmoud Amer , Ahmed Mahdy and Gamal Enan
  The prevalence percentage of vaginal candidiasis appeared to be 49% within Egyptian pregnant women suffering from vaginal pain and vaginal discharge. The 61.2% of the 49 patients were multigravidae and almost in the age range 20-30 years. Based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, the infective 49 isolates causing vaginal candidiasis could be classified and identified to C. albicans group (32 isolates), C. tropicalis group (12 isolates) and C. dubliniensis group (5 isolates). Three strains of them viz. C. albicans ZUH1 , C. trobicalis ZUH13 and C. dubliniensis ZUH9 were resistant to 6 antifungal agents used and the antifungal resistance ability in each of them was genetically encoded and linked to one plasmid in each of them, almost in the range 600-800 bp. Of many natural agents used as antifungals, aqueous extracts of alum and clove inhibited vigorously the antifungal resistant strains: C. albicans ZUH1 , C. trobicalis ZUH13 and C. dubliniensis ZUH9 ; no colony forming units were detected onto Sabouraud agar after 5 days of incubation from samples 9 treated with either alum or clove extracts.
  Gamal Enan , Sara Hamdy , Seham Abdel-Shafi and Abdul-Raouf Al-Mohammadi
  In this review, the characteristics, classification, pathogenesis and diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) infections are discussed. In addition, a list of antibiotics and natural agents necessary to inhibit S. pyogenes are listed herein. S. pyogenes is a group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. It is a facultative anaerobe, non-motile, non-sporing, spherical or ovoidal cocci. Many virulence factors are produced by S. pyogenes and are responsible for its infections such as streptolysin O, streptolysin S, streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin A and exotoxin C, streptokinase, hyaluronidase and C5a peptidase. Pathogenic causes of S. pyogenes are pharyngitis, impetigo, sepsis, erysipelas, Cellulities, puerperal fever, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis and toxic shock syndrome. Serology, culturing and microscopic examination of S. pyogenes are the most important ways of diagnosis. The recent ways to inhibit S. pyogenes by natural agents (honey, essential oils, plant extracts) are also discussed.
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