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Articles by Gamal S. El-Baroty
Total Records ( 5 ) for Gamal S. El-Baroty
  Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky , Farouk K. El Baz and Gamal S. El-Baroty
  In the present study blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima were grown in batch culture at different nitrogen and NaCl concentrations, respectively. Both species were found to respond to nitrogen deficiency and high NaCl level by accumulation of large amounts of commercially important chemicals such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The higher carotenoids and α-tocopherol contents was obtained when Spirulina sp grown at low nitrogen level (51 ppm N), with values ranged from 19.82 to 24.1 mg g-1 and from 533.2 to 978.5 μg Kg-1 (dry weight, d.w.), respectively. Whilst, these values in cells grown in free nitrogen medium were ranged from 30.15 to 31.13 mg g-1 and from 960.4 to 1325.7 μg Kg-1 (d. w), respectively. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) elution patter of total caroteniods extracted from S. platensis and S maxima culture contained β-carotene (49.6 to 319.5 μg g-1), lutein (0.06 to17.21 μg g-1), astaxanthin (6.61 to 160.27 μg g-1), zeaxanthin (1.25 to 18.55 μg g-1) and cryptoxanthin (1.41 to 20.13 μg g-1). S. maxima accumulated a large amount of cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin than that found in S. platensis. The effect of Spirulina species extracts containing various carotenoid compounds and tocopherols on the viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EACC) were evaluated. All algae extracts at different concentration of 200 and 400 ppm significant reduced the cell viability ranged from 89.11 to 5.25%. These extracts did not induce any significant changes in DNA fragmentation of treated EACC compared with untreated cells. But lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) enzyme activities and glutathione level in treated EACC were significantly higher than that in untreated cells. These finding suggest that algae extracts may be reduce cell viability by other mechanism such as membrane lyases instead of apoptosis. Thus, Spirulina extract rich in carotenoids and tocopherols could be used as chemopreventive agents since they are relative non-toxic
  Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky , Farouk K. El Baz and Gamal S. El-Baroty
  The effect of nitrogen limitation and salt stress on total lipid and unsaponifiable contents as well as fatty acid composition of Dunaliella salina were studied. The contents of total lipids, unsaponifiables and fatty acid composition were basically depend on NaCl and nitrogen concentration in the culture. The highest yield of total lipids (37.69%) and unsaponifiables (29.02%) was obtained in cells grown at 16% NaCl combined with 2.5 mM nitrogen. While, minimum yield occurred in cells grown in a culture containing 8% NaCl and 5 mM N. Cells grown at 16% NaCl combined with 2.5 mM N produced relatively higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular C18:3w3 and C16:4w3. Increasing NaCl combined with decreasing N levels in the growth medium increased the total unsaturated fatty acids (TU) at the expense of total saturated fatty acids. At higher salinity, the total amounts of carotenoids and α-tocopherol in unsaponifiable fraction were significantly increased to reaching up to 12.03 and 4.10%. The results obtained suggest that D. salina cells containing high amount of total lipid, rich in w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds in unsaponifiable lipid fraction may used as a supplemental ingredient or as a complete food to enhance the performance and state of the human body or improve a specific bodily function.
  Farouk K. El Baz , Ahmed M. Aboul-Enein , Gamal S. El-Baroty , A. M. Youssef and Hanaa H. Abdel-Baky
  Dunaliella salina a β-carotene accumulating halotolerant algae has been analyzed for the effect of various growth conditions on its antioxidant vitamin contents β-carotene, tocopherol and ascorbic acid. Vitamin contents of Dunaliella salina grown in culture contained sufficient nitrogen (70 ppm N ) and NaCl ( 10 %) under optimum light intensity 200 W were 1.78, 0.7 and 0.25 %, respectively. Increasing salt concentration (NaCl ) to 30 % and high light intensity (400 W ) increased vitamins content to 6.43, 0.45 and 0.95 %, respectively. The maximam accumulation of antioxidant vitamins occurred in Dunaliella salina was observed when the cells grown under combined stress conditions high NaCl concentration, high light intensity with nitrogen deficiency (5 ppm ). β - carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C percentages were 13.14, 1.23 and 2.5 %, respectively. These values represented 738,1751 and 1000 %, respectively when compared with values of Dunaliella salina grown under optimum conditions (70 ppm N, 10 % NaCl and light intensity 200 W). The results showed that Dunaliella salina could be a potential for mass production of antioxidant vitamins.
  Hanaa H. Abdel-Baky , E. M. Gouda , A. N. El-Behairy and Gamal S. El-Baroty
  Four algae strains: Dunaliella salina, Chlorella ellipsoidea, Scenedesmus acutus and Scenedesmus dimorphus were cultivated under stress condition, where carotenogenesis (reneged from 4.69 to 13.14 g 100 g-1 d.w) and tocopherols (1.23 to 3.75 g 100 g-1 d.w) accumulation are induced. The carotenoids have been analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were found to contain at least 14 different carotenoids. Of which, β-carotene (23.15 to 80.6%), canthaxathin (5.4-41.2%) and astataxanthin (10.2 -31.2%) were identified as major carotenoids. The lipophilic algae extracts (20 mg dose-1 every two days /mice) were administrated in continued dosages for 2 weeks to mice pretreated with 0.25% solution of benzo(a)pyrene kg-1 [B(a)P] in corn oil as a single dose. The lipophilic algae extracts (phycotene) were shown to significantly increased the activity of the cellular detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) being about 2.88 - 6.29 times higher than that the untreated mice. The administration of algal extracts induced variable increase in antioxidant defense enzymes activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase) in liver and kidney tissues of B(a)P-treated mice. However, catalase, SOD and peroxidase activities in the liver were significant increased with 1.7 - 2.45, 1.81 - 4.23 and 1.3 - 3.2, respectively times of the control group (B(a)P-mice). Also, their algae extracts were increased the cellular glutathione (GSH) level ranged from 7.3 to 9.4 μmol g-1 when compared with B(a)P group (2.1 μmol g-1). The algae extracts were inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation product, when determined in liver (61.47 -79.40%) and kidney (65.67- 81.74%) homogenate of B(a)P-mice as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The dietary administration of β-carotene and Vit. E mixture was induce increased activities of GST, catalase, SOD and peroxidase and increased the cellular GSH level and inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation product of B(a)P-mice. These findings support the hypothesis that lipophilic algae extracts (rich in antioxidant compounds) alters the protective ability of tissues against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress caused by B(a)P in vivo.
  Ahmed M. Aboul-Enein , Farouk K. El Baz , Gamal S. El-Baroty , A.M. Youssef and Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky
  The antioxidant of seven algal extracts was evaluated by decrease the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) produced from lipid peroxidation of liver microsomes induced by Fe++/ascorbate, Fe++/H2 O2 and CCl4 model systems. All algal extracts had significant effect to prevent the production of TBARS in all oxidizing model systems and this phenomenon was increased by increasing their concentration. The values of inhibition % of TBARS generate from Fe++/ascorbate, Fe++/H2 O2 and CCl4 model system by Dunaliella salina were 100, 94.43 and 90.9% respectively, (at 15 min) at concentration level 200 ppm, while the inhibition values were 98.49, 89.8 and 88.8% at 100 ppm. This extract possesses higher antioxidant activity with average 2 times than the BHT at the same concentration level (100 ppm). On the other hand, mutant strains extract of Scenedesmus dimorphus, Scenedesmus acutus and Chlorella ellipsoida showed higher antioxidant activity than the normal cells extracts. The most of all algal extracts showed more potent as an antioxidant than the BHT which, is one of the powerful synthetic antioxidant agent. The antioxidant activity of algal extract and BHT against the induced lipid peroxidation in all model system were in the following descending order: Dunaliella salina > Sc. dimorphus mutant = Chlorella mutant > Sc. dimorphus normal > Chlorella normal > Sc. acutus (mutant) > Sc. acutus (normal) > BHT. The antioxidant activity of algal extracts on induced lipid peroxidation in different model system was dependent on the chemical composition of their extracts which containing mainly the carotenoids, tocopherol and vitamin C. These substances can protect lipid peroxidation in all model system by different mode of action. Therefore, micro algae extracts inhibited the lipid peroxidation products by scavenging reactive oxygen species (OH, O¯ and 1O2) and chain reaction breaking consequently its protect bodies from harmful effect of their substances.
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