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Articles by Gail B. Mahady
Total Records ( 4 ) for Gail B. Mahady
  Bolanle A. Adeniyi , B.C. Onwubuche , F. M. Anyiam , O. Ekundayo and Gail B. Mahady
  Helicobacter pylori is the primary etiologic agent of peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and related gastroduodenal disorders. Current triple therapy, including antibiotics and proton-pump inhibitors, has been successful; however, adverse events, non-patient compliance and consequent relapse of Helicobacter pylori infections are common. Crude methanol extracts of Eucalyptus gran-dis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae) stem bark were screened against a standard strain ATCC 43504 and ten clinical strains of H. pylori using the agar diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated horse blood and grown in a microaerophilic incubator. All the strains except UCH 97002 and UCH 98020 were inhibited by the extract to varying degrees. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the susceptible strains tested ranged from 0.39 and 1.56 μg/mL. The urease activity of the three H. pylori strains tested decreased with increasing concentrations of the extract. The greatest inhibition of urease activity was observed in clinical strain UCH 97009. In addition, methanol extracts of the E. grandis enhanced cell aggregation of seven of the H. pylori strains leading to a decrease in the cell surface hydrophobicity. The salt aggregation test titer decreased from >3 to <1.5 for five of the strains and to <3 for two of the strains. Phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, essential oils and saponins, while alkaloids were not detected. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity observed in this study correlates well with the traditional use of this plant in Nigeria.
  Yue Huang , Dejan Nikolic , Susan Pendland , Brian J. Doyle , Tracie D Locklear and Gail B. Mahady
  Cranberry, the fresh or dried ripe fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae), is currently used as adjunct therapy for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of urinary tract infections. Data from clinical trials suggest that extracts of cranberry or cranberry juice reduce the bacterial load of E. coli and also suppress the inflammatory symptoms induced by E. coli infections. A methanol extract prepared from 10 kg of dehydrated cranberries did not directly inhibit the growth of E coli strains ATCC 700336 or ATCC 25922 in concentrations up to 256 μg/mL in vitro. However, the methanol extract (CR-ME) inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with an IC50 of 12.8 μg/mL. Moreover, CR-ME also inhibited the NF-κβ transcriptional activation in human T lymphocytes with an IC50 of 19.4 μg/mL, and significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α from E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. The extract had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The compounds responsible for this activity were identified using a novel LC-MS based assay as ursolic acid and ursolic acid derivatives. Taken together, these data suggest CR-ME and its constituent chemical compounds target specific pathways involved in E. coli-induced inflammation.
  Kristen Gaus , Yue Huang , Dawn A. Israel , Susan L. Pendland , Bolanle A. Adeniyi and Gail B. Mahady
  Previous investigations demonstrated that a standardized extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 0.78 to 12.5 μg/mL. In the present work, the extract was tested in a rodent model of H. pylori-induced disease, the Mongolian gerbil, to examine the effects of the extract on both prevention and eradication of infection. The extract was administered to Mongolian gerbils at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in rations either 3 weeks prior to infection or 6 weeks post-infection. Treatment with the standardized ginger extract reduced H. pylori load as compared with controls and significantly (P<0.05) reduced both acute and chronic muscosal and submucosal inflammation, cryptitis, as well as epithelial cell degeneration and erosion induced by H. pylori. Importantly, the extract did not increase morbidity or mortality. Further investigations of the mechanism demonstrated that the ginger extract inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8.5 μg/mL in vitro, inhibited the nuclear factor-κβ transcriptional response in kBZ Jurkat cells (human T lymphocytes) with an IC50 of 24.6 μg/mL, and significantly inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IC50 values of 3.89, 7.7, 8.5, and 8.37 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest ginger extracts may be useful for development as agents to reduce H. pylori-induced inflammation and as for gastric cancer chemoprevention.
  Christiana Bola A. Adeniyi , Temitope Olufunmilayo Lawal and Gail B. Mahady
  The in vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae), Nigerian medicinal plants, was investigated in six strains of H. pylori, namely, ATCC 4504, ATCC 47619, A2, TI8984, 019A, and A6. The susceptibility of these strains was determined using a standardized agar dilution method (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines) with Mueller–Hinton agar, supplemented with defibrinated horse blood. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts against all the tested strains ranged from 12.5 to 400 μg/mL. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and cardenolides. The anti-H. pylori activities demonstrated by these plants may be attributed to their chemical constituents, and explain their reported traditional uses, as well as their gastroprotective properties as demonstrated previously in experimental animals. The results of this work suggest that, in accordance with their traditional medical use in Nigeria, E. camaldalensis and E. torelliana have some therapeutic potential against H. pylori, and thus are of interest for the treatment of H. pylori infections.
 
 
 
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