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Articles by G.S. Bawa
Total Records ( 10 ) for G.S. Bawa
  G.S. Bawa , S.O. Ajide , I.A. Adeyinka and M.K. Ajala
  A study using 72 weaner rabbits, with an average initial weight of 276±2.16 g was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of groundnut haulms (GNH) and cowpea shells (CPS) on their performance and nutrient utilization. The rabbits were assigned to 6 dietary treatments based on their initial live weights. There were 12 individually caged animals per treatment. The diets designated as diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 contained 20% GNH + 0% CPS; 15% GNH + 15 CPS; 5% GNH + 15% CP and 0% GNH + 20% CPS, respectively. Diet 1 without groundnut haulms (GNH) and cowpea shell (CPS) served as the control. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. At the end of the 56 day feeding period, faeces were collected for 7 days for digestibility trial. The results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in final live weight, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cost per kg gain and carcass characteristics across dietary treatments. Nutrients digestibilities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatments with diet 2 having the highest nutrients digestibilities and diet 6, the lowest. Based on the overall performance of the animals, the diet containing 20% GNH + 0% CPS is recommended for optimum performance of weaner rabbits. However, it was concluded that where both GNH and CPS are in abundance, especially at harvesting period, a combination of 15% GNH + 5% CPS (diet 3) and or 10% GNH + 10 CPS (diet 4) could be recommended for weaner rabbits.
  G.S. Bawa and M.A. Damisa
  The excess demand on cereal grains has led to an unprecedented increase in the cost of livestock feeds. This has therefore necessitated the need to scout for cheaper and readily available sources. The study therefore examined the response of weaner pigs to diet levels in which Cassava Peel Meal (CPM) replaces maize up to 100% in the conventional livestock diet. A trial was carried out in which 20 weaner pigs were fed isonitrogenous diets that contained different levels of CPM. The study revealed that it is quite economical to substitute CPM for maize in pig diets.
  Itoe Salome , I.I. Dafwang and G.S. Bawa
  A total of 225 day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the use of Methiorep, a herbal Methionine product, as a substitute for synthetic Methionine in broiler diets. The experiment lasted from 0-4 weeks of age. The birds were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments in 3 replicates of 15 birds each, giving a total of 45 birds per treatment. The 5 dietary treatments comprised diet 1 which was devoid of supplementary Methionine and Methiorep, diet 2 had 0.25% Methionine, while diets 3-5 had graded levels of 0.25, 0.5 and 1% Methiorep respectively. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The results showed that birds fed the Methionine supplemented diet performed significantly (p<0.05) better than other treatments in body weights, weight gains, feed intake, feed to gain and feed cost per kg gain. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on mortality rate. An analysis of the effect of graded levels of Methiorep on growth performance showed that Methiorep significantly improved growth performance up to 1% inclusion level but growth performance even at that level was inferior to that obtained on the 0.25% Methionine supplemented diet. It is concluded from this experiment that Methiorep is not an effective substitute for Methionine under the conditions of this study.
  G.S. Bawa , S.B. Afolayan , D.B. Olumeyan and R. Ashiru
  An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of various duration of water deprivation on performance of weaner rabbits in a sub-humid environment. Forty eight (48) nine-week old weaner rabbits of mixed breed and sex with an average initial weight of 622 ± 0.12g were used for the study which lasted 56 days There were four watering treatments such that water supply was restricted for 0, 6, 12 or 18 hours corresponding to 24, 18, 12 or 6 hours of access to water per day respectively. The rabbits were randomly assigned based on initial live weight and sex to the four watering treatments in a completely randomized design. Free water intake decreased linearly and significantly (P< 0.05) as the duration of water deprivation increased. There were no significant treatment effects (P>0.05) on daily feed intake. There were significant (P< 0.05) decreases in live weight gains, feed efficiency and water to feed ratio with increase in duration of water deprivation respectively. Mortality rate of about 16 and 33% were recorded among rabbits groups deprived of water for 12 and 18 hours per day respectively. Results of the study showed that for optimum growth performance, weaning rabbits should have access to free drinking water for a minimum period of 12 hours in a day.
  G.S. Bawa , M. Orunmuyi , A.S. Agbaji , Z. Ladan and U.O. Okekeifi
  A feeding trial using sixty (60) weaner rabbits with an average initial live weight of 560 ± 0.80g was conducted to determine the effects of different methods of processing neem seeds on their performance and carcass characteristics. The rabbits were assigned to five dietary treatments based on their initial live weight and sex. There were twelve individually caged rabbits per treatment. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (18% CP). Diet 1 (control) was a Maize-Groundnut cake based diet without neem seed. Diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 had raw milled neem seed (RMNS), hydraulic press neem seed cake (HNSC), Solvent Extracted neem seed cake (SNSC) and Expeller neem seed cake (ENSC) included at 20% level, respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Weekly feed intake and body weight changes were determined and feed efficiency calculated. At the end of the 63-day feeding trial, four rabbits per treatment were selected based on the group average weight and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Blood samples were also obtained from the animals to evaluate Packcell volume (PCV), Haemoglobim (Hb) and Total protein (TP). The results showed that rabbits fed the processed neem seed cake diets had growth performance that were statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Animals on processed neem seed cake diets had significantly (P< 0.05) improved performance over and above those fed the raw neem seed diets. Animals on raw neem seed cake diet had consistently low value for PVC, Hb and TP. The use of solvent extracted neem seed cake in rabbit diet was favoured in this study.
  P.M. Esuga , A.A. Sekoni , J.J. Omage and G.S. Bawa
  This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) in diets supplemented with or without enzyme (Maxigarin®) as replacement for Maize in broiler diets. Four hundred and five day old Arbor acres broiler chickens were randomly allotted to nine isonitrogeneous diet where PKM was included in the diet at 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels. Four of the diets contain PKM without Maxigrain® while the other four contained PKM with Maxigrain® supplementation. The Maxigrain® was added to the already formulated diet (supplementation) at 0.01% to four of the nine diets. At the starter phase the final body weight, weight gain and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) higher in 10% and 20% PKM diets Maxigrain® supplementation compared to other treatments. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in the control, 10% and 20% PKM diets with Maxigrain®. The feed : gain ratio was significantly (P<0.001) lower in the 10% PKM diet with Maxigrain® compared to all other treatments. All levels of PKM diets with Maxigrain® were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the corresponding levels without Maxigrain®. The feed cost/kg weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) lower in all PKM diets with and without Maxigrain® compared to the control. At the finisher phase, the final weight, weight gain and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.001) higher in the 10% and 20% PKM diets with Maxigrain® compared to all other treatments. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in all PKM diets with and without Maxigrain® compared with the control. Feed : gain ratio and feed cost/kg weight gain (N) were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the control and all PKM diets with Maxigrain® supplementation compared to all PKM diets without Maxigrain®. The results indicate that Maxigrain® supplementation of PKM diets improved the utilization of PKM. Diets with 10 and 20% inclusion of PKM and Maxigrain® were better than the control maize based diets. The dressed weight, neck, liver, lungs, kidney, abdominal fat, pancrease, spleen and length of intestines were significantly (P<0.001) different across treatments. Similarly, the percentage weight of the breast, thigh, heart and the intestines were significantly (P<0.001) different across treatments with no particular trend established. The drumstick, wings, head and gizzard were significantly (P<0.05) different across treatments. No significant difference in the dressing percentage and the back across the treatments.
  A.A. Sekoni , J.J. Omage , G.S. Bawa and P.M. Esuga
  A nutrient retention trial was conducted over a twenty four day period. Eighty one day old chicks of Arbor acres strain were randomly allotted to nine isonitrogeneous dietary treatments where PKM was included in the diet at 0,10,20,30 and 40% levels and PKM treated with Maxigrain® at 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels with three replicates and three birds each in metallic cages. Results show that there was significant (P<0.001) difference in protein, fat, NFE and metabolizable energy retention which were higher in the control and Maxigrain® treated diets compared with the corresponding diets without Maxigrain®. The crude fibre retention was significant (P<0.05) lower in the control compared treatments. The crude fibre retention values at 20 and 30% PKM diets with Maxigrain® were significantly (P<0.05) lower than values for 20 and 30% PKM diets without Maxigrain®. The results indicates that enzyme treatment of PKM increased the retention of vital nutrients and metabolizable energy.
  P.A. Onimisi , J.J. Omage , I.I. Dafwang and G.S. Bawa
  Three hundred and sixty days old Ross Broiler Chicks were used in a completely randomized design feeding trial to evaluate the benefits of replacing Normal Maize (NM) with Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Obatampa variety) in Broiler diets. There were 6 treatments of 3 replicates each and each replicate had 20 chicks. Six diets were formulated in which the NM in diet was replaced by QPM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% representing T1, T2, T3, T4 AND T5, respectively while T6 was normal maize base diet balanced for lysine. The appropriate diets were fed to the birds for 4 weeks in the starter phase and 4 weeks in the finisher phase. At the starter phase, there was gradual numerical increase in weight gain as QPM increased in the diet. T5 was significantly better than T1-T4 but T6 was the overall best performance. Feed consumption was similar for T1-T5 but significantly higher for T6. Feed/gain ratio improved as QPM increased in the diet (p<0.05). Dressing % and weights of organs expressed as % of live weight and body parts expressed as % of dressed weight were not different statistically (p>0.05).
  J.J. Omage , O.C.P. Agubosi , G.S. Bawa and P.A. Onimisi
  Quality protein maize (QPM) was used to substitute normal maize variety in intensive rabbit study in attempt to reduce the cost of production. Thirty-six weaner rabbits with age ranging between 6-8 weeks and weighing between 225-300g were assigned to six treatment groups in a completely randomized design; six rabbits per treatment were individually caged and fed. The ration involved a percent replacement of normal maize with Quality protein maize at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 % levels of inclusion across the treatments. The control diet involves a 0% level of QPM supplemented with synthetic lysine. Water and feed was provided ad-libitum throughout the study period of 56 days. Feed intake, water consumption, weight gain and mortality were recorded. Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, water consumption, mortality rate, feed cost/kg weight gain. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.001) in feed cost/kg feed across the treatments. Carcass characteristics showed significant difference (P < 0.05) with no established trends in live weight, length of small and large intestines, liver, legs and tail. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in carcass weight, dressing percentage, heart, shoulder, loin, thigh, lungs, kidneys, spleen and head. The results indicated that feeding QPM to rabbits without lysine supplementation could sustain rabbits without affecting their performance, health and reduced cost of production.
  E. Opoola , S.O. Ogundipe , G.S. Bawa , P.A. Onimisi and W. Buba
  A study was conducted in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets formulated on the basis of four critical essential amino acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine) on the crude protein requirement of broiler finisher chickens (28-56 days) reared under tropical environment. One hundred and eighty chickens were used in this experiment. There were four experimental diets each with three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The experimental diets were formulated in a gradual crude protein increase from 18-21 by 1% interval. Diet 1-4 contained 18-21% dietary crude protein respectively. All the diets were formulated to have an additional 10% for the four critical essential amino acids. The performance of chickens fed 19% CP was similar to chickens fed 20 and 21% CP diets in terms of final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Feeding 18% CP with essential amino acids diet resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower final weight, weight gain, average daily weight gain and poor FCR than those fed diets higher crude protein diets. Generally, it was observed that chickens fed 19, 20 and 21% CP supplemented with balanced essential amino acids were statistically similar in terms of the carcass weight, dressing percentage, thighs, drumsticks, heart, lung and back weights compared to the chickens fed 18% CP supplemented with balanced essential amino acids. It can be concluded that crude protein requirement of broiler finisher chickens (28-56 days) can be reduced to 19% with essential amino acids supplementation without having any adverse effect on growth, carcass quality and haematological parameters of broiler finisher chickens reared under the tropical environment.
 
 
 
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