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Articles by G.O. Tona
Total Records ( 2 ) for G.O. Tona
  G.O. Tona , V.O. Asaolu , O.A. Amao and A.A. Akingbade
  This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and the 24 h in vitro fermentation characteristics of various levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation, sole or combined with other feed ingredients for ruminants. Moringa oleifera Leaf meal (MOL), dried cassava peels, palm kernel cake, bone meal and salt were milled and stored separately and then mixed together at different levels. The levels of inclusions were; D1 (0% MOL), D2 (5% MOL), D3 (10% MOL), D4 (15% MOL) and D5 (100% MOL = test ingredient). The potential gas production ranged from 26.00-37.00 mL/200 mg DM. Highest p<0.05 potential gas production were obtained with both treatments D1 and D3 while D5 recorded the lowest value. The ME was highest in D1 (8.05 MJ kg-1 DM) and lowest for both D2 (6.90 MJ kg-1 DM) and D5 (6.82 MJ kg-1 DM) which were similar. The percentage OMD was highest (p<0.05) in D1 (61.42%) and lowest in both D2 (46.22%) and D5 (46.81%) which did not differ (p>0.05). The values for SCFA were highest (p<0.05) for both D1 and D3 (0.82 μmol) and lowest for D5 (0.56 μmol). The diet (D1-0% MOL) without the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal had the highest values of in vitro gas production parameter measurements, including the ME, OMD and SCFA as compared to the other diets with Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusions. The best level of Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion in the diets was 10% (D3-10% MOL) while the sole Moringa oleifera leaf meal diet (D5-100% MOL) recorded the lowest in vitro gas production parameter values. This study, thus demonstrated that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when fed in combination with conventional concentrate ingredients could enhance its utilization as feed for ruminants.
  G.O. Tona , V.O. Adetunji , S.A. Ameen and A.O. Ibikunle
  The concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) heavy metals in cow milk, goat milk butterfat, soft cheese and yoghurt samples were evaluated. Forty samples (eight of each sample) were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. There were detectable residual concentrations of Pb and Cd in all the 40 samples. The range of 0.0025 to 0.0061 ppm of Pb concentrations in the samples was within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of 0.0125 to 0.0175 ppm of Pb in milk and dairy products. There was a significantly (P<0.05) higher mean Pb concentration of 0.0061±0.0025 ppm in the soft cheese samples. The residual concentrations of Pb in the cow milk samples were not significantly (P>0.05) different from that of the goat milk samples. Residual concentrations of Cd were higher in soft cheese samples (0.0048±0.0007 ppm) and in goat milk samples (0.0045±0.0005 ppm Cd) and these two concentrations exceeded the MRL of 0.0035 ppm of Cd recommended by India regulations. The residual concentration of Cd in goat milk samples (0.0045±0.0005 ppm) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in the cow milk samples (0.0021±0.0007 ppm). The results of this study showed that all the milk and milk products samples analyzed contained residues of Pb and Cd heavy metals. The observation of residual Cd concentrations above the MRLs in the soft cheese samples and in the goat milk samples is of public health concern and could cause health hazards to consumers.
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