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Articles by G.I. Okafor
Total Records ( 5 ) for G.I. Okafor
  S.A. Ngabea , W.I. Okonkwo , E.A. Echiegu , G.I. Okafor and P.I. Akubor
  Background and Objective: Most diabetic patients in Nigeria rely on Bambara nut flour as food because of its insulin building ability in the body system, but the challenge is its unavailability all-year-round in the market outlets when needed. The objective of this study was to use response surface methodology to optimized temperature, packaging material and storage time for Bambara nut flour storage. Materials and Methods: Bambara nut was grounded to the flour and packaged in a high-density polythene bag, paper bag and plastic container. The flour samples were stored in each of the packaging materials for 7 weeks under controlled temperatures of 20, 30 and 40°C, respectively. At weekly intervals, the flours were analyzed for proximate composition. The central composite design was used to study the effect of temperature, packaging materials and storage time on the proximate composition of Bambara nut flour. Data obtained were evaluated using regression analysis. Results: The study showed that all the parameters studied were significant in producing high-quality Bambara nut flour. The coefficients of determinations (R2) were 0.8693, 0.8839 and 0.9750 for moisture, fat and carbohydrate contents, respectively and were good for the second-order quadratic model. The study showed that the optimum temperature is 37.58°C, time is 4.62 weeks and the flour packaged in the plastic container had the lowest moisture content of 11.17%. Conclusion: The study confirmed that the model is adequate to optimize these process conditions and the flour packaged in a plastic container would be most effective for shelf-life stability of Bambara nut flour stored at ambient condition.
  E.C. Omah and G.I. Okafor
  Millet Flour (MF) and Pigeon Pea Flour (PPF) were produced and blended in the ratio of 65:35 to obtain Millet-Pigeon Pea Flour blend (MPF). Wheat Flour (WF) and MPF were used in ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 to produce cookies which were subjected to sensory evaluation, to isolate the best ratio (80:20). Following this preliminary study, cookies were produced from a combination of Cassava Cortex Flour (CCF), Millet-Pigeon Pea Flour (MPF) and Wheat Flour (WF). CCF was used to substitute different levels of WF in the 80:20 (MF: MPF) blend, to give ratios of WF: MPF: CCF as 100:0:0, 80:20:0, 75:20:5, 70:20:10, 65:20:15 and 60:20:20. The composites were used with other ingredients to produce cookies that were subjected to proximate, energy, anti-nutrient, microbial and sensory analyses. Their moisture contents ranged from 7.00-8.40, ash 1.05-1.75%, crude fibre 1.25-1.70%, protein 6.25-7.44%, fat 16.40-17.20% and digestible carbohydrate 64.70-66.86%. The ranges of anti-nutrients in the cookies were; 0.09-0.22% tannin, 0.63-1.13% phytate, 0.09-0.15 Hu/mg haemaglutinin and 0.55-1.45% hydrogen cyanide. Sensory evaluation revealed that the cookies had high attributes ratings compared to cookies with 100% wheat flour. The bacteria and mould counts ranged from 0.2×10-0.8×102 CFU g–1.
  J.N.C. Okafor , G.I. Okafor , A.U. Ozumba and G.N. Elemo
  Bread containing graded levels of Mushroom Powder (MP) were produced by replacement of Wheat Flour (WF) with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% MP. Effect of MP supplementation on the bread making properties, proximate composition and sensory qualities were evaluated. Water absorption was significantly (p<0.05) increased as MP level increased in all dough, however, loaf volume, specific volume, crumb grain and loaf quality decreased. Supplementation of WF with MP from 0-25% increased the crude protein content significantly from 7.96-14.62%, ash from 0.90-2.64% and crude fiber 0.51-2.48%. Sensory evaluation based on appearance, crust color, crumb color, crumb texture, taste, chew ability, flavor and overall acceptability showed there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between 5% MP fortified bread and 100% WF bread (control) in all the attributes evaluated. Equally, 10% MP fortified bread did not differ significantly in crust color, taste, chew ability and overall acceptability, it compared favorably well with control bread in these attributes. Bread with 15% MP though had significantly (p<0.05) lower rating compared to the control, was also acceptable to the panelist. Mushroom powder therefore could be added to wheat flour up to 10% without any observed detrimental effect on bread sensory properties. This could be used to improve the nutritional quality of bread especially in developing countries were malnutrition is prevalent.
  E.C. Omah and G.I. Okafor
  Millet flour (MF) and pigeon pea flour (PPF) were produced and blended in the ratio of 65:35 to obtain millet-pigeon pea flour blend (MPF). Wheat flour (WF) and MPF were used in ratios of 100: 0, 90:10, 80:20, 70: 30 and 60: 40 to produce cookies. The flour were subjected to functional and proximate analysis, while the cookies made from the flour blends were subjected to sensory evaluation, to isolate the best ratio. Results obtained indicated that the functional properties of the flour ranged from 0.64 to 0.81 g/cm2 bulk density, 0.47 to 1.10 ml/g, water absorption capacity, 16.70 to 48.25% swelling capacity and 6.03 to 6.40 pH; while the proximate composition ranged from 8.80 to 13.00% moisture, 8.76 to 16.64% protein, 1.30 to 3.00% fat, 1.25 to 1.80% ash, 0.80 to 2.5% 0 crude fibre, 67.86 to 78.60% carbohydrate. The functional properties of the flour showed some significant differences (p<0.05) when compared with wheat flour. All the cookies were acceptable to the panelists; however, the products produced from 80:20 ratio of wheat flour and millet-pigeon pea composite flour blend was selected as the best product.
  J.N.C. Okafor , G.I. Okafor , K. Leelavathi , S. Bhagya and G.N. Elemo
  Biscuits were produced from refined wheat flour and roasted Bambara Groundnut (BGN) flour (140°C for 20 min) at ratio: 100:0, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 respectively. The physical, chemical and organoleptic properties and acceptability of the biscuits were evaluated. The BGN fortified biscuits contained high quantities of crude protein (11.42-13.96%), total fat (14.30- 15.46%) and carbohydrate (64.85- 74.04%). The moisture content (3.42-3.74%) and the caloric value (451.94-454.38 kcal/100 gm) were similar in all the blends, while crude ash (0.56-2.13%) significantly (p<0.05) differed from each other. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between weight, thickness and spread ratio of the 100:0 wheat (control) and BGN fortified biscuits. However, there were significant differences (p<0.0.5) between the control and the fortified biscuits in breaking strength with the 100:0 ratio wheat flour biscuit having the higher value of 1.41. Sample with 50:50 ratio roasted BGN flour was significantly (p<0.05) darker in color than the control (100:0 wheat flour biscuit) and those fortified with 80:20 and 70:30 BGN flour. Sensory evaluation result indicates that all the fortified biscuits had high sensory ratings for the attributes evaluated. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between biscuits with 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 BGN flour and the control sample in crust color, crust surface characteristics and taste. Although, biscuits with ratio 50:50 BGN flour had lower mean scores in crumb color, texture and taste, they were generally acceptable to the panelist. In all, biscuits with up to 70:30 wheat flour/roasted BGN flour ratio blend compared favorably well with the control in all the evaluated quality attributes.
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