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Articles by G.G. Akunna
Total Records ( 8 ) for G.G. Akunna
  B. Ogunlade , L.C. Saalu , O.S. Ogunmodede , G.G. Akunna , O.A. Adeeyo and G.O. Ajayi
  Alcohol is currently recognized as the most prevalent known cause of abnormal human health. Furthermore, the liver remains the most commonly affected organs following alcohol abuse. The effect of Allium cepa against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rabbits was investigated in the present study. Rabbits were divided into four groups; The Allium cepa-alone group received physiological saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily per oral (p.o) for 60 days followed by Allium cepa 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for another 60 days. The alcohol-alone group was given alcohol 5 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for 60 days followed by saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for another 60 days. The alcohol plus Allium cepa group were similarly given alcohol, but had Allium cepa 100 mg kg-1 b.wt, daily p.o post-treatment for another 60 days. Another group of rabbits were given peanut oil (the vehicle) 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o, for 60 days, after saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for 60 days to serve as the control. The gross anatomical parameters of the liver and liver histology were assessed. Liver oxidative stress was evaluated by liver Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. In addition, the activities of the biomarker enzymes of the liver (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were assayed. An assessment of the histological profiles of the liver showed a derangement of the liver cytoarchitecture following alcohol abuse and a marked improvement was observed after Allium cepa administration. Similarly, Allium cepa improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH) and the increased MDA and serum hepatic markers levels caused by alcohol ingestion. It was concluded that Allium cepa may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress of rabbits with alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity.
  L.C. Saalu , G.G. Akunna and J.O. Ajayi
  The characteristic bitter taste of Vernonia amygdalina has been attributed to its anti-nutritional contents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and glycosides. Recently the spermiographic effect of the plant in male rats has been reported. The present study examined the effect of bitter leaf extract on 30 days oral administration of 50, 100, 200 mg kg-1 and 60 days oral administration of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the extract on some fertility indices in male wistar rats. At 30 days administration, the extract produced a significant and dose dependent increase (p<0.05) in sperm concentration, percentage motility, morphology and percentage live sperm. There was a decrease in the blood level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) but no significant increase in the levels of Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone. Administrations of bitter leaf extract at higher dosage (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and duration provoked varying degrees of testicular degeneration ranging from a significant reduction in sperm concentration, motility, percentage normal morphology, percentage number of live sperm to a significant increase in the number of percentage abnormal sperm. Evidences suggest that higher dosage of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) extract administered for a longer duration could be deleterious to the testes.
  G.G. Akunna , E.N. Obikili , G.E. Anyanwu and E.A. Esom
  Background and Objective: One of the several side effects of cancer treatment remains cytotoxicity. The curative effect of aqueous zest extract of Citrus paradisi on cisplatin-induced testicular degeneration was studied. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) weighing 237-276 g were divided into four groups. The first group of rats served as control and were treated orally with 2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt day–1, group B rats treated with single dose of 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., group C and D rats were treated with a single dose of 10 mg kg–1 b.wt. of cisplatin and then treated orally with 10 and 40 mg kg–1 b.wt. of aqueous zest extract of Citrus paradisi for 8 weeks. Results: Results showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in testis weight, testis volume, sperm count, sperm motility and normal sperm morphology (p<0.01). Also, observed was marked degeneration and atrophied tubules with absence of late stage germ cells evidenced by significant reduction in tubular diameter (p>0.01), perimeter (p>0.01), length (p>0.001) and width (p>0.05) in germinal epithelia height (p>0.05), cross-sectional area, number of profiles per unit area and numerical density, PAS-positive materials and Ki67 cells of seminiferous tubules of the rats treated with cisplatin alone. Interestingly, all these parameters were attenuated in the groups that were post-treated with the extract. Conclusion: Based on these evidenced it was concluded that aqueous zest extract of Citrus paradisi have curative roles in the abatement of cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats.
  O.S. Ogunmodede , L.C. Saalu , B. Ogunlade , G.G. Akunna and A.O. Oyewopo
  Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is raising globally, especially the resource -starved countries such as Nigeria. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. Several investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these traditional preparations, some of which have proven efficacy. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (A.cepa) aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 15 adult male rabbits, using 200 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate as a single intraperitoneal injection. These alloxan -diabetic rabbits were then divided into three groups; one group was administered aqueous extract of A. cepa 100 mg Kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days, another group received A. Cepa 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days and the last group of diabetic rabbits received peanut oil (the vehicle) instead of A. cepa to serve as the diabetic control. There were also five rabbits which received neither alloxan nor A. cepa (the negative control group). All the liver histological derangements caused by diabetes were attenuated in the A. cepa-treated group. Increasing dosages of A. cepa aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Additionally, A. cepa remarkably improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters-Superoxide dismutase, catalase (SOD), catalase (CAT) Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) , Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation. It is concluded based on these findings that A. cepa may be effective in ameliorating diabetic’s related hepatotoxicity and alterations of biochemical parameters.
  G.G. Akunna , L.C. Saalu , O.S. Ogunmodede , B. Ogunlade , G.A. Adefolaju and A.J. Bello
  The use of perfumes is becoming increasingly popular in our environment. Attention is therefore understandably being focused on the safety of these perfumes. Hence, this study aimed to determine changes in the anatomical parameters of the liver and the activities of the biomarker enzymes of the liver (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) following the exposure of the rats to two popularly used Nigerian made perfumes. Thirty-six Wistar rats were allocated into groups: A, B, C, D, E and F with each group consisting of six rats. Animals in groups C and D were exposed to the first and second perfumes by inhalation respectively for 77 days; animals in groups E and F were exposed to the first and second perfumes by inhalation respectively for a period of 154 days, while groups A and B animals served as the control groups for the periods of 77 days and 154 days, respectively. The rats were sacrificed at the end of each period of exposure after which blood was obtained for enzyme assay and the liver weights, liver volumes, liver weight/body weight ratio were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease in the animals body weights, liver weights, liver volumes and liver weight/bodyweight ratios in the experimental groups of rats as compared to the control groups. There were also increases in the activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. It is concluded that these perfumes have a deleterious effect on the rat liver.
  G.G. Akunna , L.C. Saalu , B. Ogunlade and L.A. Enye
  Various commonly-used products have been reported to contain chemicals that could disrupt estrogen and testosterone hormone. As trade secrets, these chemicals are generally listed as fragrance to mask individual identity. In this study, the reproductive implications of two commonly used perfumes (designated as F1 and F2) in Nigeria were carried out. Sixty adult male wistar rats (12-13 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (A-F) of ten rats each. Group A and B rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of normal saline for 56 days and 112 days, respectively via whole body inhalation. Group C and D rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a fragrance product designated as F1 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively while Group E and Group F rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a designated fragrance product F2 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.005) decrease in body weight and absolute testicular weight of the rat models exposed to fragrance when compared to the control groups. It was also observed that the concentration, mobility, livability and morphology of spermatozoa from groups C, D, E and F were significantly lower (p>0.005) when compared to values of the control group A and B. Based on the spermiographic evaluation from this study, fragrance materials could have an adverse effect on spermatozoa of the intact male wistar rats.
  A.M. Akingbade , L.C. Saalu , O.O. Oyebanji , D.A. Oyeniran , O.O. Akande and G.G. Akunna
  This study evaluates the testicular degeneration induced by Rhodinol-based incense using testicular histology, sperm characteristics, as well as testicular oxidative status bio-markers. Twenty four male adult albino rats (10-12 weeks old) weighing 200-230 g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of six rats each. Group A served as the control group and the animals in this group were exposed to 1 g of natural solid air freshner. Groups B, C and D, were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 g of rhodinol-based incense smoke, respectively for 30-40 min every day for 62 days. All the exposures were via whole body inhalation. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the gross anatomical parameters of absolute and relative testicular weights in rats exposed to 2 g and 3 g rhodinol based incense when compared to the control group. The rhodinol-based incense exposed groups of rats also demonstrated a reduction of basal seminiferous epithelia, testicular atrophy, germinal aplasia and hypo-spermatozoa formation. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology and a significant (p<0.05) increase in total abnormal sperm morphology in group of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense when compared to the control group. In addition, groups of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense demonstrated a derangement in their oxidative status when compared to the control group as evidence by the significant (p<0.05) decreased in activities of superoxide peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, reduced glutathione and significant (p<0.05) increase malondialdehyde (a product of lipid perioxidation). Taken together, it was concluded that rhodinol-based incense produces testicular derangement in testicular histology, sperm parameters and oxidative status in albino rats. This derangement may be mediated at least in part through the oxidative pathway.
  G.G. Akunna , E.N. Obikili , G.E. Anyawu and E.A. Esom
  Background: Spermatogenesis is a complex series of differentiation process that can be interfered by toxic chemicals, heavy metals, heat, radiation, deficiencies of hormones and immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) weighing 164-279 g were divided into three groups of four rats each. The rats in group A served as the control group and were treated with 2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., daily, group B and C rats were given a single dose of 5 and 7 mg kg–1 b.wt., of cadmium chloride solution intraperitoneally. The protocol lasted for 8 weeks. Results: There was a significant (p>0.01) reduction in spermatozoa count, spermatozoa motility, percentage number of morphologically normal spermatozoa and a significant (p>0.01) increase in the percentage number of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (headless sperm, rudimentary tail, curved tail, curved mid-piece) in animal models exposed to cadmium. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in SOD, GSH, CAT and MDA activity in the groups of rats when compared to the negative control group. Conclusion: This study has shown that cadmium induces morphological and functional abnormalities on rat spermatozoa by reducing antioxidant status.
 
 
 
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