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Articles by G.A. Kalio
Total Records ( 2 ) for G.A. Kalio
  J.N. Ingweye , G.A. Kalio , J.A. Ubua and E.P. Umoren
  The study evaluated the nutritive value of seeds of wild Senna obtusifolia plants as an alternative plant protein source in livestock diets. Proximate composition results showed high dry matter (92.50%), crude protein (29.54%) and crude fiber (10.18%), but low ether extract, nitrogen free extract, ash and calorific values. The vitamin content results showed poor vitamins B2 , B1, C and A but the seeds were rich in vitamin B3 (1.85 mg/100 g) values compared to other seeds. The seeds were also abundant in calcium (960 mg/100 g), potassium (1,200 mg/100 g), phosphorus (810 mg/100 g), sodium (600 mg/100 g), magnesium (640 mg/100 g), iron (234.60 mg/100 g), zinc (53.12 mg/100 g) and copper (10.48 mg/100 g) but low in molybdenum, cobalt, chromium, selenium, sulphur and fluorine. The amino acid profile reveals a high concentration of leucine (7.60 g/100 g protein), histidine (2.11 g/100 g protein), proline (2.33 g/100 g protein) and glycine (4.11 g/100 g protein) while the rest of the amino acids were of low concentration in the raw seed. The concentration of anti-nutrients in the legume seeds recorded high values (260, 185, 388.50 and 83.25 mg/100 g) for alkaloid, saponin, tannin and oxalate respectively, while phytate, hydrocyanic acid and phytohaemaglutinin levels were low. The high level of most anti-nutrients indicates the potential for interfering with the utilization of the nutrients by the animals. This therefore, creates a need for detoxification of the seeds through processing before using in livestock feeds.
  N.J. Anyanwu , V.U. Odoemelam , U.E. Ekezie , V.O. Nwaiwu , I. Etela , I.I. Ekpe and G.A. Kalio
  Consumption of saturated and trans fats can elevate blood cholesterol levels thereby increasing the risk of heart disease. Excessive fatty deposit associated with broiler meat due to ad libidum feeding has been reported to affect the quality of the processed chicken. There has been reports that different herbs and natural products are effective in lowering serum cholesterol levels in animals thereby producing leaner and healthier broiler meat. In view of recent concerns on effects of bad lipids on human health and claims that the supplementation of broiler diets with Moringa oleifera seed meal might positively affect the carcass quality, this study was initiated. This trial evaluated the effects of feeding undecorticated Moringa oleifera seed meal on growth performance, haematological and biochemical values of broilers finisher birds. The air dried seeds were milled in a hammer mill to produce Moringa oleifera Seed Meal (MOSM). Four broiler diets were formulated to contain the MOSM at 0, 8, 12 and 16%, respectively and were used to feed 96 broiler finisher birds. The birds were divided into 4 groups and randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diet with to as control diet and T1, T2, T3 as the Moringa treatment diet in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replicates per treatment. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. At the end ofn the experiment, six birds per treatment were randomly selected for collection of blood samples for haematological analysis. Blood samples were collected and dispensed into tubes containing Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant and another set into tubes without coagulant for serum analysis. At the end of the 7 week experimental period, results indicated that Average Final Body Weight (AFBW) and Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG) decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increased inclusion of Moringa oleifera Seed Meal (MOSM), although, T2 showed least value in ADWG. The results showed that haematological indices such as packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, haemoglobin were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by varied levels of MOSM and were within the normal range (9.06-31-0×106/g) recommended for broiler birds except for WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophiles and platelets which were higher than the average values. The results of the biochemical parameters indicated that urea was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by increasing levels of MOSM compared to the control. However, elevated values of serum cholesterol, sodium, chlorine, glucose and calcium were observed, although, not significant. All other serum indices were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by increasing levels of MOSM. The study suggests that the dietary inclusion of MOSM significantly reduced weight gain but did not reduce the serum cholesterol levels in the broiler birds.
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