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Articles by G.A. Anyanwu
Total Records ( 5 ) for G.A. Anyanwu
  S.U.O. Onyeagocha , N.C. Ehirim , C.A. Emenyonu , C.S. Onyemauwa , F.O. Nwosu , D.O. Ohajianya , C.C. Eze , G.A. Anyanwu , N.N.O. Oguoma and B.O. Esonu
  The profitability, determinants of the viability and resource use efficiency of broiler farmers in Akwa Ibom state, South-South, Nigeria were evaluated in this study after the incidence of Avian-flu pandemic in parts of Nigeria. Multi-stage, random sampling technique was employed in selecting 72 broiler farmers comprising backyard poultry, semi-commercial and commercial broiler farmers. Cost route approach was used in data collection. The data were analyzed using cost and return analysis, financial and efficiency ratios; as well as descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the analysis indicated that the broiler enterprise was profitable although production was at low capacity. The variable cost constituted about 83% of the total cost and feed alone made up about 60% of this cost. Fixed cost constituted about 17% of total cost. The returns on gross and net profits were about 30 and 15%, respectively. For every bird sold, the farmer made a profit of N435 and the breakeven point (volume) was 348 broilers. A striking difference of over 35% profitability was observed between this study and a previous study in the same state before the Avian-flu attack in Nigeria, thus raising grave concerns of any direct attack for the industry in the area. Further, the regression analysis showed that feed, equipment and labour were statistically significant at 5% level, thus enhancing the usage of these inputs would increase profitability. The farmers, who were mainly of middle age group and school certificate holders, were found to be allocatively inefficient and operated at an increasing return to scale. This implied that they were operating in Zone 1 or Irrational Zone of the production function. To be efficient, the broiler farmers need to re-adjust downwards the over-utilized inputs, namely feed, labour, equipment and drugs by 35, 79, 99.8 and 99.9%, respectively. In addition, the under-utilized input, namely, size of stock, need to be re-adjusted upwards by 56%. Allied to this, is the need to enhance the farmers’ educational status (formal and informal) and encourage young graduates to take to farming. All stakeholders including the government, consumers and producers should synergize in the monitor and control of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) strain H5NI, which rampaged parts of the country to stem possible morbidity of the disease.
  G.A. Anyanwu , E.B. Etuk , I.C. Okoli and A.B.I. Udedibie
  A feeding trial of 84 day was conducted to evaluate the performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed different combinations of Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO). Four layer diets were formulated such that diet T1 (control) contained 50% maize, while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained CRM and BGO in the ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively, completely replacing maize. Ninety six Shaver Brown point-of-lay pullets were allotted into four experimental groups of 24 pullets each and each group was replicated twice with eight pullets per replicate. These birds were randomly assigned to the experimental dies in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. Results indicated that daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher for layers on diet T3 and T4 than those on diet T1. Daily feed intake was significantly higher (129.48 and 128.60 g) for layers on the diet (T1) than other treatment groups, while layers on diets T2, T3 and T4 recorded higher egg weights than those on the control diet. Hen-day production was significantly (p<0.05) higher among layers fed diet T1 (control) than those on the other treatment groups which contained different combination ratios of CRM and BGO. FCR was highest (2.11) and lowest (1.99) for layers fed diets T3 and T2, respectively. Yolk index, albumen index and yolk colour showed no statistical difference (p>0.05) in all the treatment groups. However, layers on diet T4 and T3, respectively recorded the highest (0.35 mm) and lowest (0.33 mm) shell thickness while those on diet T1 and T4, respectively recorded the highest (69.64) and lowest (60.62) Haugh units. It would appear that the different combinations of CRM and BGO significantly depressed the performance of laying birds.
  E.U. Onweremadu , C.C. Asiabaka , C.P. Anyanwu , G.A. Anyanwu , E.B. Etuk and B.O. Esonu
  This study evaluated animal manure production, management techniques, utilization and effect on soil productivity in Amuzu Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria. The study, which was conducted in 2006 used structured interview schedule at a phase of the study. In another phase, we studied the effects of animal manures from muturu (Local cattle), goats, sheep and pigs on a degraded Isohyperthermic Kandiudult using maize (Zea mays L.) as a test crop. The potted experiment was set up in a greenhouse using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with each treatment replicated 9 times. Five treatments used included manures from Muturu, goats, sheep, pigs and control. Relevant measures of central tendency and dispersion were used in the statistical analysis of socio-economic and agronomic data. Results showed that a greater number of households engaged in goats and sheep, thereby making their manures relatively more abundant than other livestock. Majority of the livestock fend for of themselves in rangelands with pigs being more confined. Animal manures were collected and used although they were inadequate and bulky while there was poor knowledge of urine as biofertilizer quality of manures differed with handing technique and manure improved maize (Zea mays L.) performance significantly (p = 0. 05). Soil chemical fertility was significantly (p = 0.05) improved. Integrated studies especially is if affects indigenous knowledge will be helpful.
  G.A. Anyanwu , F.C. Iheukwumere and C.O. Emerole
  A 28-day feeding trial involving ninety-six (96) four weeks old broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of total replacement of maize with different combination ratios of maize grit and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG) on the performance, carcass characteristics and economy of finisher broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated by substituting maize with maize grit and BDG in the ratio of T1 (0%); T2 (3:1-45 + 15); T3 (1:1-30 + 30) and T4 (1:3-15 + 45) respectively. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Each experimental unit of 24 birds was replicated twice giving 12 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Body weight and weight gain per feed intake through higher at high cost with the control diet improved in cheaper diets formulated with maize grit and BDG. There was no consistency in the carcass characteristics of the groups particularly among the internal organs showing that dietary maize grit ad BDG could not pose any discernible nutritional problems that might manifest in the carcass of the broilers. Cheaper feed formulated with maize grit and BDG gave the higher gross margins especially diet 4.
  A. Omede , V.M.O. Okoro , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli and G.A. Anyanwu
  Information on the proximate composition and sometimes the toxicology of novel feedstuffs has been used routinely in determining the suitability of feedstuffs in poultry feeding, especially during animal feeding trials. Limited information however exists on the biophysical characteristics of such novel feedstuffs. The Bulk Density (BD), Water-holding Capacity (WHC) and Specific Gravity (SG) of three novel feedstuffs {Leaf Meal (LEM), Rumen Digesta (RD) and Poultry Dung (PD)}, were evaluated. Available published and unpublished results on the proximate compositions of the materials were related to the physical characteristics results. LEM had significantly (p>0.05) lower BD and SG than RD and PD while RD recorded the highest WHC value although the value was similar (p>0.05) to that of LEM. Particle Size (PS) effects showed that BD of RD and PD were lower at the ≥1.00 mm PS than at the unmodified and <1.00 mm PS, indicating that materials of similar Crude Fiber (CF) could be manipulated to yield different BD with possible ultimate effects on the performance of birds. The WHC of LEM at <1.00 mm PS level was seven times higher than that of unmodified and =1.00 mm PS while RD value at the same <1.00 mm PS level was 2 and 4 times higher than those recorded at the unmodified and ≥1.00 mm PS levels, respectively. This is evidence that grinding increased the surface area of the LEM, thus improving the ability of its Non-starch Polysaccharides (NSP) to bind water. Information on the feed physical characteristics could be used together with proximate and toxicological information to determine the nutritional and intake potentials of a novel feedstuff even before a feeding trial.
 
 
 
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