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Articles by G. Owens
Total Records ( 3 ) for G. Owens
  E. R Viscusi , T. J Gan , J. B Leslie , J. F Foss , M. D Talon , W Du and G. Owens

Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient cessation of coordinated bowel function after surgery, is an important health care problem. The etiology of POI is multifactorial and related to both the surgical and anesthetic pathways chosen. Opioids used to manage surgical pain can exacerbate POI, delaying gastrointestinal (GI) recovery. Peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR) antagonists are designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of opioids on GI motility. This new class is investigational for POI management with the goal of accelerating the recovery of upper and lower GI tract function after bowel resection. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which POI occurs and the role of opioids and opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system, discuss the mechanism of action of PAM-OR antagonists, and review clinical pharmacology and Phase II/III POI trial results of methylnaltrexone and alvimopan. Finally, the role of anesthesiologists in managing POI in the context of a multimodal approach is discussed.

  Raw sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in urban areas of developing countries to meet water shortages. Although it is a good source of plant nutrients, such sewage also increases the heavy metal load to soils, which may impact the food chain. Management options for sewage contaminated soils includes addition of nontoxic compounds such as lime, calcium sulfate and organic matter, which form insoluble metal complexes, thus reducing metal phytoavailability to plants. In this paper we review the variation in irrigation quality of sewage at different sites and its impact on the quality of soils and vegetables. Although quality of sewage was highly variable at source, yet the effluent from food industries was relatively safe for irrigation. In comparison effluent samples collected from textile, dyeing, calendaring, steel industry, hospitals and clinical laboratories, foundries and tanneries were hazardous with respect to soluble salts, sodium adsorption ratio and heavy metals like zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt and cadmium. The sewage quality in main drains was better than that at the industry outlet, but was still not safe for irrigation. In general, higher accumulation of metals in fruits and vegetable roots was recorded compared to that in plant leaves. Edible parts of vegetables (fruits and/or leaves) accumulated metals more than the permissible limits despite the soils contained ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable metals within a safe range. In either case further scientific investigations are needed to ensure safe management strategies. Cadmium appeared to be the most threatening metal especially in leafy vegetables. It is advisable to avoid leafy vegetables cultivation in sewage irrigated areas everywhere to restrict its entry into food chain.
  K.R. Kim , G. Owens and R. Naidu
  It is increasingly recognized that metal bioavailability is a better indicator of the potential for phytoremediation than the total metal concentration in soils; therefore, an understanding of the influence of phytoremediation plants on metal dynamics at the soil-root interface is increasingly vital for the successful implementation of this remediation technique. In this study, we investigated the heavy metal and soil solution chemical changes at field moisture, after growth of either Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) or sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), in long-term contaminated soils and the subsequent metal uptake by the selected plants. In addition, the fractions of free metal ions in soil solution were determined using the Donnan membrane technique. After plant growth soil solution pH increased by 0.2–1.4 units and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased by 1–99 mg L−1 in all soils examined. Soluble Cd and Zn decreased after Indian mustard growth in all soils examined, and this was attributed to increases in soil solution pH (by 0.9 units) after plant growth. Concentrations of soluble Cu and Pb decreased in acidic soils but increased in alkaline soils. This discrepancy was likely due to a competitive effect between plant-induced pH and DOC changes on the magnitude of metal solubility. The fractions of free Cd and Zn ranged from 7.2% to 32% and 6.4% to 73%, respectively, and they generally decreased as pH and DOC increased after plant growth. Metal uptake by plants was dependant on the soil solution metal concentration, which was governed by changes in pH and DOC induced by plant exudates, rather than on the total metal concentrations. Although plant uptake also varied with metal and soil types, overall soluble metal concentrations in the rhizosphere were mainly influenced by root-induced changes in pH and DOC which subsequently affected the metal uptake by plants.
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