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Articles by G. Liu
Total Records ( 4 ) for G. Liu
  J.F. Zhao , S.X. Wan , G. Liu , N. Yan and W. R. Hu
  A new set of experimental data of subcooled pool boiling on a thin wire in microgravity aboard the 22nd Chinese recoverable satellite is reported in the present paper. The temperature-controlled heating method is used. The results of the experiments in normal gravity before and after the flight experiment are also presented, and compared with those in microgravity. The working fluid is degassed R113 at 0.1 MPa and subcooled by 26°C nominally. A thin platinum wire of 60μm in diameter and 30 mm in length is simultaneously used as heater and thermometer. It is found that the heat transfer of nucleate pool boiling is slightly enhanced in microgravity comparing with those in normal gravity. It is also found that the correlation of Lienhard and Dhir can predict the CHF with good agreement, although the range of the dimensionless radius is extended by three or more decades above the originally set limit. Three critical bubble diameters are observed in microgravity, which divide the observed vapor bubbles into four regimes with different sizes. Considering the Marangoni effect, a qualitative model is proposed to reveal the mechanism underlying the bubble departure processes, and a quantitative agreement can also be acquired.
  W. Y Cheung , R Zhai , M. H Kulke , R. S Heist , K Asomaning , C Ma , Z Wang , L Su , M Lanuti , K. K Tanabe , D. C Christiani and G. Liu

Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of key cancer genes, such as EGF A61G, are associated with an elevated risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). As gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an established risk factor for EAC, we evaluated whether the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF) polymorphism and EAC development is altered by the presence of GERD. Methods: EGF genotyping of DNA samples was performed and GERD history was collected for 309 EAC patients and 275 matched healthy controls. Associations between genotypes and EAC risk were evaluated using adjusted logistic regression. Genotype–GERD relationships were explored using analyses stratified by GERD history and joint effects models that considered severity and duration of GERD symptoms. Results: EGF variants (A/G or G/G) were more common (P = 0.02) and GERD was more prevalent (P < 0.001) in cases than in controls. When compared with the EGF wild-type A/A genotype, the G/G variant was associated with a substantial increase in EAC risk among individuals with GERD [Odds ratio 9.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–25.0; P < 0.001] and a slight decrease in risk for GERD-free individuals (odds ratio 0.4; 95% CI = 0.22–0.90; P = 0.02). In the joint effects models, the odds of EAC was also highest for G/G patients (when compared with A/A) who either experienced frequent GERD of more than once per week (odds ratio 21.8; 95% CI = 5.1–94.0; P < 0.001) or suffered GERD for longer than 15 years (odds ratio 22.4; 95% CI = 6.5–77.6; P < 0.001). There was a highly significant interaction between the G/G genotype and the presence of GERD (P < 0.001). Conclusions: EGF A61G polymorphism may alter EAC susceptibility through an interaction with GERD.

  C. Pan , W. Yang , W. Jia , J. Weng , G. Liu , B. Luo , X. Li , Z. Fu and H. Tian
  Aim  To describe the status of glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes in 2006.

Methods  Subjects having registered for care for > 12 months at a diabetes clinic were enrolled in this study. Glycaemic control was determined by HbA1c and plasma glucose levels; information about self-reported adherence to treatments was obtained by questionnaire; psychological well-being was assessed by use of a modified World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index; and quality of life was measured by use of a modified Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) survey. All data were tabulated and statistical analyses were performed.

Results  A total of 2702 patients were enrolled during 2006. Only 23% of patients achieved an HbA1c level of < 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) as per the 2007 China guideline for Type 2 diabetes and only 16.2% followed all treatment recommendations from healthcare providers. Of the patients, 46.0-68.6% of the patients showed positive psychological well-being. A quality-of-life survey showed that 28.5-50.6% of the patients experienced various diabetes-related emotional problems. Large percentages (approximately 50%) of patients were experiencing psychological insulin resistance.

Conclusions  Although in China therapies for Type 2 diabetes are more effective and available than ever before, the patient outcomes remain disappointing. Problems with glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life, all of which are key to diabetes control, are common among Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  Jianbo Cai , G. Liu , Ye Tuo , Wei Liu and Duanwei Zhu
  In this study, aerobic granular sludge was utilized as an effective biosorbent to remove Zn2+ from the aqueous solution. The results showed that the initial pH, contact time and Zn2+ concentration affected the biosorption process significantly. Typically, the adsorption capacity of Zn2+ by aerobic granular sludge increased with increasing pH in the ranges of 5.0-7.0 and decreased with increasing of pH in the ranges of 7.0-9.0, which indicated that pH at 7.0 was optimal choice for the Zn2+ adsorption by the aerobic granular sludge. The maximum removal of Zn2+ at pH 7.0 was found to be 131.47 mg g-1 at initial Zn2+ ion concentration of 120 mg L-1 by the aerobic granular sludge. In addition, the adsorption ability of two kind of anaerobic granular sludge from different reaction stage at one reactor for Zn2+ remove was compared. It was founded that the anaerobic granular sludge from the end of aerobic stage had better adsorption ability than that from the end of anaerobic stage, which could be attributed to be the species and quantity of microbial in the aerobic granular sludge.
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