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Articles by G. Leena
Total Records ( 3 ) for G. Leena
  S.H. Somshekhar , B.M. Veeregowda , V.V.S. Suryanarayana , G. Leena , K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty
  Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) is an acute fatal septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes. It is caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2. The disease is of great economic importance in India mainly due to the high mortality in susceptible populations. Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) play an important role in infectious process of many bacteria. In the present study, OMP of P. multocida (serogroup B) field isolates (n = 12) and a vaccine strain (P-52) were extracted by a sarkosyl method and characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. A total of 9-14 different polypeptide bands were observed with approximate molecular weight ranging from 16-123 kDa. On the basis of stain intensity, 32 kDa protein appeared to be the major protein band followed by 37, 26, 29, 89 and 72 kDa bands. Two protein bands of 123 and 46 kDa were present only in vaccine strain. Protein band of 69 kDa was present only in four of the field isolates and vaccine strain whereas OMP with 43 kDa was detected in only four of the field isolates and absent in remaining field isolates and vaccine strain. Immunoblotting identified 32, 37, 72 and 89 kDa protein bands as immunogenic OMPs. It can, therefore, be concluded that outer membrane proteins play a significant role in the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Several OMPs act as immunogens for which the antibodies produced against them demonstrate a strong protective action and such OMP antigens may be used as component of subunit vaccines.
  D. Neeraja , B.M. Veeregowda , M. Sobha Rani , D. Rathnamma , H.D. Narayanaswamy , M.D. Venkatesha , G. Leena , R. Apsana , S.H. Somshekhar , M. Saminathan , K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an economically important zoonotic disease (can spread to human through inhalation or ingestion) caused by Mycobacterium bovis which belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Control and eradication of infection is difficult even in organized dairy farms. So combinations of tests like culturing and nucleic acid-based diagnostics are used for the isolation and identification of mycobacterial infections in cattle. Even though, there are many advances in diagnosis of bovine TB infection in cattle but till now, isolation identification of the etiological agent from clinical samples stands as a definitive and gold standard test. Nucleic acid based methods like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which have advantages of speed, sensitivity and specificity can be used for diagnosis of tuberculosis along with isolation. In the present study, isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms was attempted from nasal swabs and milk of cattle using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media without glycerol. Cattle which were positive for tuberculosis either by skin test or gamma interferon test were selected. Two of the twelve nasal swabs and none of the seven milk samples showed typical mycobacterial colonies on LJ media after 8 weeks of incubation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of colonies showed slender, rod shaped acid fast organisms suggestive of Mycobacterium. Deoxy ribo nucleic acid (DNA) was extracted by boiling method and amplified by duplex PCR for 245 and 500 bp amplicons specific for MTC (IS6110) and M. bovis (RvD1Rv2031c), respectively. Electrophoresis revealed 245 bp product but not 500 bp which confirmed the identity and relatedness of the isolated mycobacterium to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
  D. Neeraja , B.M. Veeregowda , M. Sobha Rani , D. Rathnamma , R. Bhaskaran , G. Leena , S.H. Somshekhar , M. Saminathan , K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis which belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is a globally distributed zoonotic disease in cattle. The present study was conducted in a dairy herd with the history of prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. Two Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) based tests, Single Intradermal Test (SID), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay and a serological test (enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) were employed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 45 animals. Of these, 8 (17.77%) were positive by SID test, 10 (22.22%) by interferon gamma assay and none of the animals were found positive by ELISA. Both the CMI tests performed were found better than the antibody detection. Between the CMI tests, IFN-γ assay showed better sensitivity than the SID test; combination of tests showed better detection of the bTB infection in animals. ELISA results indicated that animals were still in progressive stages of infection and the sensitivity of the tests depends on the stage of infection in the study subjects. As a whole, 26.67% of the animals tested in the farm were found to be positive and/or reactors to tuberculosis. It indicates that both the CMI tests were better than those targeting antibody detection. ELISA did not detect even a single animal as positive. These results indicate that no single test is able to detect all the infected animals and also not having 100 % sensitivity and specificity. So combination of tests always can be better employed for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.
 
 
 
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