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Articles by G. S Stein
Total Records ( 2 ) for G. S Stein
  N. M Teplyuk , Y Zhang , Y Lou , J. R Hawse , M. Q Hassan , V. I Teplyuk , J Pratap , M Galindo , J. L Stein , G. S Stein , J. B Lian and A. J. van Wijnen
 

Steroid hormones including (1,25)-dihydroxyvitamin D3, estrogens, and glucocorticoids control bone development and homeostasis. We show here that the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 controls genes involved in sterol/steroid metabolism, including Cyp11a1, Cyp39a1, Cyp51, Lss, and Dhcr7 in murine osteoprogenitor cells. Cyp11a1 (P450scc) encodes an approximately 55-kDa mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes side-chain cleavage of cholesterol and is rate limiting for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Runx2 is coexpressed with Cyp11a1 in osteoblasts as well as nonosseous cell types (e.g. testis and breast cancer cells), suggesting a broad biological role for Runx2 in sterol/steroid metabolism. Notably, osteoblasts and breast cancer cells express an approximately 32-kDa truncated isoform of Cyp11a1 that is nonmitochondrial and localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses and gel shift assays show that Runx2 binds to the Cyp11a1 gene promoter in osteoblasts, indicating that Cyp11a1 is a direct target of Runx2. Specific Cyp11a1 knockdown with short hairpin RNA increases cell proliferation, indicating that Cyp11a1 normally suppresses osteoblast proliferation. We conclude that Runx2 regulates enzymes involved in sterol/steroid-related metabolic pathways and that activation of Cyp11a1 by Runx2 may contribute to attenuation of osteoblast growth.

  Z Li , M. Q Hassan , M Jafferji , R. I Aqeilan , R Garzon , C. M Croce , A. J van Wijnen , J. L Stein , G. S Stein and J. B. Lian
 

Bone tissue arises from mesenchymal cells induced into the osteoblast lineage by essential transcription factors and signaling cascades. MicroRNAs regulate biological processes by binding to mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences to attenuate protein synthesis. Here we performed microRNA profiling and identified miRs that are up-regulated through stages of osteoblast differentiation. Among these are the miR-29, miR-let-7, and miR-26 families that target many collagens and extracellular matrix proteins. We find that miR-29b supports osteoblast differentiation through several mechanisms. miR-29b decreased and anti-miR-29b increased activity of COL1A1, COL5A3, and COL4A2 3'-UTR sequences in reporter assays, as well as endogenous gene expression. These results support a mechanism for regulating collagen protein accumulation during the mineralization stage when miR-29b reaches peak levels. We propose that this mechanism prevents fibrosis and facilitates mineral deposition. Our studies further demonstrate that miR-29b promotes osteogenesis by directly down-regulating known inhibitors of osteoblast differentiation, HDAC4, TGFβ3, ACVR2A, CTNNBIP1, and DUSP2 proteins through binding to target 3'-UTR sequences in their mRNAs. Thus, miR-29b is a key regulator of development of the osteoblast phenotype by targeting anti-osteogenic factors and modulating bone extracellular matrix proteins.

 
 
 
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