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Articles by G. N Connolly
Total Records ( 2 ) for G. N Connolly
  M. J. J Van Hemelrijck , D. S Michaud , G. N Connolly and Z. Kabir
  Background

Smoking accounts for >50% of bladder cancers (BCs) in men and 30% in women. Our aim is to explore this large discrepancy by contrasting countries with distinct smoking patterns and habits as these might explain sex differences for BC.

Methods

Temporal patterns in BC incidence rates, lung cancer (LC) death rates, smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption across time by sex were analyzed by calculating annual percent changes (APCs), using joinpoint regression, for Spain (1973–97), Sweden (1958–97) and the UK (1960–97).

Results

APCs for overall BC incidence rates were increasing for both sexes, ranging from 1.43% (1.25; 1.60) (British men) to 3.79% (3.15; 4.44) (Spanish men). APCs for overall LC death rates were also increasing in Sweden and Spain, but the UK showed decreasing APCs for LC death rates in men: –0.48% (–0.86; 0.10). Spain showed decreasing APCs for smoking prevalence among men and increasing APCs among women, –1.65% (–1.79; –1.51) and 2.48% (1.97; 3.00), respectively, but no differences by sex were found for the UK and Sweden.

Conclusions

Findings indirectly reflected lag-time of minimum 30 years between smoking and onset of BC. The lack of sex differences for APCs of BC across these countries suggests potential contributions of changes in other population exposure levels.

  G. N Connolly , C. M Carpenter , M. J Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , M Mulcahy and L. Clancy
  Introduction

The present study examined indoor air quality in a global sample of smoke-free and smoking-permitted Irish pubs. We hypothesized that levels of respirable suspended particles, an important marker of secondhand smoke, would be significantly lower in smoke-free Irish pubs than in pubs that allowed smoking.

Methods

Indoor air quality was assessed in 128 Irish pubs in 15 countries between 21 January 2004 and 10 March 2006. Air quality was evaluated using an aerosol monitor, which measures the level of fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in the air. A standard measurement protocol was used by data collectors across study sites.

Results

Overall, the level of air pollution inside smoke-free Irish pubs was 93% lower than the level found in pubs where smoking was permitted.

Discussion

Levels of indoor air pollution can be massively reduced by enacting and enforcing smoke-free policies.

 
 
 
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