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Articles by G. Hassan
Total Records ( 18 ) for G. Hassan
  S. M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz , M. Sadiq and G. Hassan
  A green house study was undertaken to see the comparative efficiency of various potassium extraction procedures in three soil series of Pakistan i.e., the Shahdara, the Sultanpur and the Lyallpur. The data showed that number of tillers plant , grain G1 and straw yield of wheat was increased by the application of N and P fertilizers. Potassium concentration in grain and straw was decreased while its uptake increased with the application of N and P. Potassium release from the native reserves increased with the application of N and P. The amount of K extracted by HNO was maximum followed by NH OAC, MgOAC, CaCl and water 3 4 2 in the descending order. Ammonium acetate gave best correlation between K uptake by wheat plants and K extracted by various chemical extractants when no fertilizer was applied while CaCl proved best extractant when N and P fertilizers were applied. 2 Quantity factor gave best correlation with K uptake at all levels of N and P fertilizers application rates when Quantity, Intensity and Quantity/Intensity relations were studied. In case of Electroultrafiltration (EUF) determination. The values of correlation coefficient (r) were significantly high when K was determined for 35 minutes EUF at control while, 10 minutes EUF at all N and P application rates. In over all comparison of various procedures like water soluble, NH OAC, MgOAC, CaCl , HNO , EUF, Q, I 4 2 3 nd Q/I relations for determining the soil K status and its uptake by wheat plant showed that NH OAc gave the best correlation 4 at zero application of N and P fertilizers, water soluble and CaCl were found best when N and P dose was applied while EUF 2 150 100 10 minutes and CaCl were good when N and P were applied. The activity ratio (Q/I) did not prove good parameters to 2 200 150 measure the K availability status of the soils. Though the chemical extractants gave comparatively better correlation with K uptake but EUF method is a rapid and easy. So it should be used for routine work to get accurate and rapid results.
  M. Arshad Ullah , M. Sarfraz , M. Sadiq , S. M. Mehdi and G. Hassan
  A field study was conducted to note the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with different micronutrient solutions i.e., water, ZnSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4 on field emergence of Raya cv. , Peela Raya. The concentration of solution used for seed treatments was 0.5M. Seeds were soaked for 12 hours and after that these soaked seeds were dried under the shade for 12 hours before sowing. A basal fertilizer dose of 30 kg N and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 was applied at the time of sowing. The results revealed that seedling emergence and early growth, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots were affected significantly by these seed treatments except FeSO4 .
  T. Mahmood , G. Shabbir , M. Sarfraz , M. Sadiq , M. K. Bhatti , S. M. Mehdi , M. Jamil and G. Hassan
  An experiment involving 8 x 8 diallel crossing was conducted with rice to investigate the nature of gene action in governing the various traits studied and to explore the combining ability behavior of various genotypes used in the studies. Twelve agro-physiological characters were included in the study in F1 generation. High additive effects were recorded for plant height, panicle length, productive tillers/plant and primary branches/panicle. The non-additive effects were more pronounced for panicle fertility, days to maturity, shoot dry weight, paddy yield; Na, Ca and K contents of the shoot and K/Na ratio of the shoot. Out of the height parental lines/varieties studied Jhona-349 and Bas-385, respectively, proved to be the best general and specific combiners in the experiment under salinized soil conditions.
  M. Sadiq , M. Jamil , S. M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz and G. Hassan
  To investigate a suitable and more tolerant brassica variety/line for salt affected soil, a field experiment was conducted for three consecutive years (1997-1999) at soil salinity research institute, Pindi Bhattian. Performance of seven brassica varieties/lines i.e., peela raya, SPS-23-1, SPS-23-2, ORI-56-6, P-8-2, RL-18 and brown raya were studied in ameliorated and non-ameliorated soils. A field having ECe 13.43 d sm-1, pH 9.69 and SAR 65.97 (m mol l-1) ½ was selected, half of which was ameliorated by applying gypsum @ 100 % G.R. and brassica varieties/lines were sown. All cultural practices were applied to the crop. The results showed that germination percentage, plant height, 1000 grain weight and grain yield were maximum in ameliorated than non-ameliorated soil during all the three years. Among varieties/lines, grain yield was in order of P-8-2, OR1-50-6. It is clear from the results that P-8-2 variety gave the highest grain yield (511.68 kg ha-1) among all other varieties/lines in ameliorated/non-ameliorated soils.
  M. Sadiq , M. Jamil , S. M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz , M. R. Gondal and G. Hassan
  Effect of various weedicides with different doses was studied for chemical weed control and yield of lentil crop. Stomp 330 EC (Pendimothalim) pre-emergence @ 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kg ai ha-1, Treflan-R 48 EC (Trifluralin), pre-emergence incorporated @ 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kg ai ha-1 and Fusillade 25 EC (Flauzifop butyl) post-emergence @ 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 kg ai ha-1 were compared with hand weeding on sandy loam saline-sodic soil. The soil having ECe 4.9 dS m-1, pHs 8.70 and SAR 18.10 (m mol l-1) ½ was selected. The test variety was masoor-85. All the weedicides at different doses significantly controlled the weeds but stomp @ 1.50 kg ai ha-1 pre-emergence application produced higher grain yield (1465.00 kg ha-1) among all other treatments which was followed by stomp @ 1.25 kg ai ha-1 (1405.90 kg ha-1) and hand weeding (1405.42 kg ha-1).
  S. M. Mehdi , A. M. Ranjha , M. Sarfraz , G. Hassan and M. Sadiq
  The physical, chemical, morphological and mineralogical properties of three soil series viz. Shahdara, the Sultanpur and the Lyallpur, forming a chrono-sequence, were determined to quantify the effect of time on soil formation. The data showed that the relative particle-size differentiation in various horizons of the profiles increased with age and an illuviated clay profile developed progressively. There was no consistent increase in organic matter content with age. This trend was, most probably, due to high temperature and low rainfall, which resulted in little accumulation of organic matter in all the cases. The amount of CaCO3 decreased with soil age, while no definite trend of the cation exchange capacity and NH4OAc extractable bases was observed. Both the ECe & pHs, decreased with soil age. The mineralogical variation of these alluvial soils was not found to be related to pedogenic processes but parent material. The illite content was the same through out the profile in all the series. Smectite was more in Shahdara and decreased with age. Vermiculite was absent while chlorite and kaolinites were present, though in minor amounts, in all the three series.
  M. Arshad Ullah , M. Sarfraz , S. M. Mehdi , M. Sadiq , G. Hassan and M. Jamil
  A field experiment was conducted to investigate effect of micronutrients (ZnSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4) as pre-sowing seed treatment of Peela Raya (Brassica carianata L.). Seed treatments comprised of control (un-soaked), 12 hours soaking of seed in distilled water and in solutions of 0.5 M FeSO4, 0.5 M MnSO4 and 0.5 M ZnSO4. The soaked seed was then dried under the shade for 12 hours before sowing. The results showed that yield parameters such as number of primary branches per plant, plant height at maturity, days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod were affected to a considerable extent. Seeds treated with ZnSO4 gave the highest values of yield parameters.
  A.G. Khan , G. Shabbir , M. Sadiq and G. Hassan
  Find rice candidate variety PB-95 was evaluated for its quality traits in comparison with shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati. The newly evolved cultivar PB-95 possesses extra long slender shape grain with higher degree of grain elongation, intermediate amylase content and gelatinization temperature. The candidate variety leads Super Basmati Shaheen Basmati for Kernal length, Kernal width, Kernal thickness and cooked grain length and elongation ratio with strong aroma.
  M. Sadiq , M. Jamil , S.M. Mehdi , G. Hassan and J. Akhtar
  A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different tillage implements and rice stubbles as residue on the yield of wheat in saline-sodic soil. Rotavator proved the best among all the tillage implements producing maximum germination counts (35.5 m-2). no. of tillers (289.49 m-2); 1000 grains wt. (45.52 g), grain yield (3.409 t ha-1) and straw yield (3.42 t ha-1). Rice stubbles had better residual effect giving significantly higher values of these parameters than the rice stubbles removed from field before sowing the wheat crop. Incorporation of rice stubbles into soil proved also beneficial in improving health of saline-sodic soil.
  S.M. Mehdi , G. Abbas , M. Sarfraz , S.T. Abbas and G. Hassan
  A research study was carried out to see the effect of industrial effluents on mineral nutrition of rice and soil health. For this purpose a site was selected near the bank of nullah Dek at “Shakirabad” in the Distt. Sheikhupura. The water of this nullah is contaminated by industrial effluents carrying different mineral metals. This water was applied to rice crop growing at the site. Three fine rice varieties namely Super Basmati, Shaheen Basmati and Basmati 2000 were transplanted which were grown up to maturity. The system of layout was Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Paddy and straw yields data were recorded. Water samples were collected before transplanting of rice and during rice season after every fifteen days interval from 3rd August to first of November which were analysed for different mineral metals contents. After the harvest of rice crop, soil, paddy and straw samples were analysed for different mineral metals. The analysis of Nullah Dek water showed that its total salts concentration was higher than the safe limit (>1 EC d Sm–1). Even SAR of the nullah water is high but it has no problem of high RSC. Among mineral metals, Zn, Mn, Cd and Sr are present but these are within safe limit except Sr. Soil analysis before transplanting of rice showed that all these samples were free of salinity/sodicity hazards. Among mineral metals, the zinc ranged between deficiency limit (<0.5 mg kg–1) to adequate amount (>1.0 mg kg–1). Copper, Mn and Fe were present in adequate amounts at the sampled site. Strontium, Nickel and cadmium were within safe limits. After the harvest of rice crop there was a slight decrease in pHs, ECe and SAR at both the depths of experimental site. The decrease in pHs was noted < 1 unit. Like pHs and ECe, Sodium adsorption ratio also decreased. The contents of all mineral metals i.e. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Sr after harvest of rice crop were further increased. The contents of these metals were higher in upper layer than the lower horizon. The increase in Zinc contents was up to< 0.5 mg kg–1 soil, the increase in Copper contents was < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil, Iron and manganese were increased up to 1 mg kg–1 soil, Cadmium, Nickel and Strontium were increased < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil. Lead was determined after harvest of rice crop only which ranged from 2.68 to 3.33 mg kg–1. There was maximum paddy and straw yield of Shaheen Basmati followed by basmati 2000 and least of super basmati. The chemical analysis of paddy and straw samples indicated that there was a sufficient accumulation of all the heavy metals in both the plant parts. The accumulation of zinc (1.60-1.68 mg kg–1), copper (0.93-1.13 mg kg–1), iron (3.15- 3.50 mg kg–1), manganese (1.83- 1.88 mg kg–1) and lead (2.89-2.95 mg kg–1) were noted in paddy of different varieties. Cadmium (0.125- 0.175 mg kg–1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (0.073- 0.093 mg kg–1). Strontium was noted in higher quantities at the site of the study. Its concentration ranged between 26.74 to 30.73 mg kg-. Rice straw was also analysed for heavy metal contents because it is used as fodder for animals in this area. It is indicated from the results that the rice straw also contains sufficient quantities of different metals. It contains zinc (27.75-30.0 mg kg–1), copper (18.0 – 19.50 mg kg- 1), iron (274- 279 mg kg–1), manganese (2.33- 2.43 mg kg-1), lead (1.23-1.24 mg kg-1). Cadmium (0.20- 0.35 mg kg-1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (1.162 to 1.195 mg kg–1. Strontium was noted in higher quantities. Its concentration ranged between 46.68 to 48.86 mg kg–1.
  S.M. Mehdi , N. Sajjad , M. Sarfraz , B.Y. Khalid , G. Hassan and M. Sadiq
  A field investigation was carried out to compare the efficiency of different phosphatic fertilizers in salt affected soils at three different locations. Sites First and 2nd were saline sodic having coarse texture (loamy sand) while site third was sodic in nature and have fine texture (clay loam).All the sites were low in organic matter contents and extractable K while available P was in medium range. The sources of phosphorus tested were single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrophos (N/P).The rate of phosphorus applied was 110 kg P2O5 ha-1 from all the sources along with N and K @ 140 and 70 kg ha-1 respectively. The results showed that grain and straw yields were improved by the application of phosphorus over control from all the sources. All the sources remained at par with each other at all the sites except DAP at site three (sodic) where it was found inferior to other sources used i.e. SSP, TSP and N/P. Phosphorus concentration in grain and straw was found non significant in all the treatments. While phosphorus (P) uptake was significantly affected by the phosphatic fertilizers application. Maximum P uptake was recorded in the treatment where TSP was applied except in grain at Ist site and in straw at 3rd site where SSP proved better. However both the sources remained at par with each other. Nitrophos in case of grain remained at par with TSP and SSP while in case of straw it was significantly inferior to TSP and SSP. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) was proved an inferior source at site Ist and 3rd than TSP and SSP. However P uptake in all the sources was significantly higher than control.
  M. Asghar , M. Sadiq , S. M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz , G. Hassan and R. Ahmad
  The results indicated that maximum yield of paddy was obtained from those plots which were transplanted on 20th July except 1997 where 5th August date gave the maximum but non-significant yield. Among the varieties Shaheen performed better than others. Straw yield decreased with the delay in transplanting irrespective of season. Maximum straw was produced when the lines/varieties were transplanted on 20th June followed by 5th July, 20th July and 5th August in all the years. Among the lines/varieties tested Shaheen produced the least straw. The results indicated that maximum yield of paddy was obtained from those plots which were transplanted on 20th July except 1997 where 5th August date gave the maximum but non-significant yield. Among the varieties Shaheen performed better than others. Straw yield decreased with the delay in transplanting irrespective of season. Maximum straw was produced when the lines/varieties were transplanted on 20th June followed by 5th July, 20th July and 5th August in all the years. Among the lines/varieties tested Shaheen produced the least straw.
  S.M. Mehdi , N. Sajjad , M. Sarfraz , R. Ahmad , M. Asghar and G. Hassan
  The results indicated that grain and straw yields, P concentration in grain and P uptake by grain and straw was increased significantly over control by the application of different sources of phosphorus. All the sources remained at par with each other in all the characteristics studied. However a careful scrutiny of the data showed maximum grain straw yields, P concentration in grain and straw and P uptake by grain and straw were with TSP followed by SSP, N/P and DAP. TSP appears a better source of phosphorus in mildly saline sodic soil.
  S. M. Mehdi , G. Hassan , M. Sarfraz , M. Sadiq , N. M. Hassan and G. Shabbir
  Potassium deficiency symptoms were observed on rice 1999 in a number of fields throughout the Hafizabad district. Soil and plant samples from 98 rice fields showing K deficiency symptoms were collected. These soil and plant sample were analyzed for K contents. All the 98 plant samples had low K contents according to critical limits while soil samples were tested medium in ammonium acetate (CH -CO-O-NH ) extractable K. In the same year K was applied to 3 4 rice crop @ 62.5 Kg haG showing K deficiency symptoms at 11 sites. The paddy and straw yields improved from 4.17 1 to 36.20 % and 2.94 to 40.0 % over control by the application of K, respectively. Similarly K concentration also increased in both paddy and straw over control, by applying K, from 18.75 to 36.59 % and 6.70 to 14. 46 % respectively. Potassium uptake by paddy and straw yields and total K uptake also increased by applying K over control.
  A.M. Ranjha , M. Akram , S.M. Mehdi , M. Sadiq , M. Sarfraz and G. Hassan
  A total of 100 soil and 75 plant samples were collected for determination of nutritional status of citrus orchards in Sahiwal. The results showed that 8% soil samples were deficient in N, 4% in P, no one in K, 100% in Zn and no one in Cu, Fe and Mn. The extent of nutrients belonging to low category has been found as 88% in N, 56% in P, no one in K, 84% in Cu and no one in Fe and Mn. In sufficiency range, 4% soil samples were sufficient in N, 24% in P, 64% in K, 16% in Cu and 100% in Fe and Mn contents. Among high range of nutrients only 16% soil samples in P and 35% in K were found. In case of leaf samples, 40% were deficient in N, 28% in Zn, no one in P, K, Fe, Cu and Mn while 24% were low in N, 60% in K, 68% in Zn and no one in P, Cu, Fe and Mn and 32% were sufficient in N, 68% in P, 40% in K, 4% in Zn, 100% in Cu, Fe and Mn contents while 4% were high in N and 32% in P. Soil pH had a non significant negative correlation with leaf N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Mn and nonsignificant positive correlation with Cu. Soil organic matter had a highly significant positive correlation with leaf N and nonsignificant negative correlation with K, Cu and Mn and non significant positive correlation with P, Ca+Mg, Zn and Fe contents. Clay contents had a significant positive correlation with K and non-significant positive correlation with P, Ca+Mg, Zn and negative correlation with N, Cu, Fe and Mn but non significantly. A positive significant correlation was also found between soil N, Ca+Mg, Fe content and leaf N, Ca+Mg and soil P, K, Zn and Mn also had positive correlation with leaf P, K, Zn and Mn but non significantly. Soil Cu had negative correlation with leaf Cu but non-significantly.
  M. Anwar Zaka , Fakhar Mujeeb , Ghulam Sarwar , N.M. Hassan and G. Hassan
  Agromelioration is the approach for reclamation of salt-affected soils in which minimum possible quantity of chemical amendments is applied coupled with organic material/agronomic practices. A field study was conducted to reclaim saline sodic soil through the application of gypsum @ 25 % G.R. alone and in combination with FYM, rice straw, sesbania @ 10 t ha G 1 and crust scraping. A standard treatment of 100 % G.R. was also included. Rice and wheat crops were grown in rotation for two years. Crops were harvested at maturity and soil status was monitored after the harvest of each crop. The rice straw and sesbania coupled with 25 % of G.R. were found to be superior to other treatments but were comparable with 100 % G.R. as far paddy yield of first rice crop was concerned. But in the subsequent wheat, the treatment of 100 % G.R. became inferior. However, the effect of FYM improved. The other treatments where organic matter (rice straw, FYM and sesbania) was applied along with 25 % G.R. became similar with 100 % G.R. at the end of 4th crop in terms of yields. The crust scrapping and gypsum @ 25 % G.R. alone were assessed as inferior techniques. Soil analysis also followed the same trends. The EC of the soil rapidly decreased due to light textured soil but the reduction in soil pH and SAR was gradual.
  M. A. Khan , Mushabar Zahoor , I. Ahmad , G. Hassan and M. S. Baloch
  The relative efficacy of hand weeding and six herbicides on the yield components and yield of wheat variety Inqalab 91 was studied. Hand weeding and herbicides significantly increased the number of fertile tillers, spike length, number of Spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. The herbicides application decreased the weed population. The grain yield corresponded with the weed mortality of the different treatments Buctril-M, Tolkan and Logran produced the highest grain yield and comparable with the hand weeding. Buctril-M was in turn statistically at par with all other herbicidal treatments but it out yielded the weedy check. All other herbicides could not produced higher yield from the weedy check, statistically. It is recommended from the data that Buctril-M is a herbicide of choice for controlling broad leaf weeds spectrum of D.I.Khan area.
  Sardar Ali , Hidayat-ur-Rahman , Raziuddin , S. Salim Shah and G. Hassan
  Broad sense heritability estimates, genetic advance and Relative Expected Genetic Advance (REGA) were computed for different fodder yield related traits in two maize populations during Kharif 2002 and 2003. Two maize populations, DRS; developed through recurrent selection and DMS developed through mass selection, were grown in modified RCBD with two replications. Mean squares from the analysis of variance among S1 families for both maize populations indicated highly significant (p≤0.01) differences for all the studied traits. Estimates of genetic variances were significant for all traits except stem girth in both populations. Genetic variances in comparison to respective environmental variances were greater for majority of the traits in both populations. Heritability estimates were high and significant for all the traits in both populations. Comparison of two populations revealed that heritability estimates were higher for internode length and fresh fodder yield in the DRS population and for plant height, stem girth, flag leaf area and dry matter content in the DMS population. Genetic advance was higher for internode length, flag leaf area, fresh fodder yield in the DRS population and for plant height, stem girth and dry matter content in DMS population. REGA% was higher for internode length and fresh fodder yield in DRS population while DMS population attained higher values for plant height, stem girth, flag leaf area and dry matter content. The higher heritability estimates, genetic advance and REGA for fresh fodder yield in DRS population indicates that recurrent selection method was comparatively more effective in improving maize population for fodder yield parameters.
 
 
 
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