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Articles by G. D. D Jones
Total Records ( 3 ) for G. D. D Jones
  G. D. D Jones , R. C Le Pla and P. B. Farmer
 

In addition to reacting with DNA base moieties, many chemical genotoxins also react with the oxygen atoms of the internucleotidic phosphodiester linkages to form phosphotriester adducts (PTEs). In view of their stability under physiological conditions, it has been suggested that PTEs may be useful biomarkers for measuring cumulative genotoxin exposure. The methodology for their determination is varied and still not completely developed but includes determination of hydrolysis products and 32P-postlabelling approaches. More recently, transalkylation and direct mass spectrometry techniques have been devised, which give extra chemical information on the structures of the PTEs. The proportion of DNA damage formed as PTEs is much greater with SN1 compared to SN2 alkylating agents, and it has been shown in DNA that the formation of PTEs is partially sequence dependent. PTEs have been considered to be refractory to repair in mammalian cells but repair mechanisms have been found in prokaryotic cells, e.g. PTEs in Escherichia coli are repaired by O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (O6-MGT or Ada protein). However, studies on in vivo persistence of PTEs in mammalian systems have not ruled out the possibility of a contribution from an active repair process for PTEs. The biological significance of PTEs is largely unstudied and unknown, although effects of PTEs on DNA polymerases, and some exo- and endonucleases have been observed. Also site-specific PTEs impair the repair processing of adjacent sites of DNA damage, which may be a biological mechanism of importance for these lesions. In this review, we will consider the analytical methods available for the determination of PTEs, their stability in vitro and in vivo, the mechanisms for their repair, their possible biological significance and their potential role as biomarkers in human molecular epidemiology studies.

  L Forchhammer , C Johansson , S Loft , L Moller , R. W. L Godschalk , S. A. S Langie , G. D. D Jones , R. W. L Kwok , A. R Collins , A Azqueta , D. H Phillips , O Sozeri , M Stepnik , J Palus , U Vogel , H Wallin , M. N Routledge , C Handforth , A Allione , G Matullo , J. P Teixeira , S Costa , P Riso , M Porrini and P. Moller
 

The comet assay has become a popular method for the assessment of DNA damage in biomonitoring studies and genetic toxicology. However, few studies have addressed the issue of the noted inter-laboratory variability of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. In this study, 12 laboratories analysed the level of DNA damage in monocyte-derived THP-1 cells by either visual classification or computer-aided image analysis of pre-made slides, coded cryopreserved samples of cells and reference standard cells (calibration curve samples). The reference standard samples were irradiated with ionizing radiation (0–10 Gy) and used to construct a calibration curve to calculate the number of lesions per 106 base pair. All laboratories detected dose–response relationships in the coded samples irradiated with ionizing radiation (1.5–7 Gy), but there were overt differences in the level of DNA damage reported by the different laboratories as evidenced by an inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) of 47%. Adjustment of the primary comet assay end points by a calibration curve prepared in each laboratory reduced the CV to 28%, a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05, Levene's test). A large fraction of the inter-laboratory variation originated from differences in image analysis, whereas the intra-laboratory variation was considerably smaller than the variation between laboratories. In summary, adjustment of primary comet assay results by reference standards reduces inter-laboratory variation in the level of DNA damage measured by the alkaline version of the comet assay.

  C Johansson , P Moller , L Forchhammer , S Loft , R. W. L Godschalk , S. A. S Langie , S Lumeij , G. D. D Jones , R. W. L Kwok , A Azqueta , D. H Phillips , O Sozeri , M. N Routledge , A. J Charlton , P Riso , M Porrini , A Allione , G Matullo , J Palus , M Stepnik , A. R Collins and L. Moller
 

The increasing use of single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) highlights its popularity as a method for detecting DNA damage, including the use of enzymes for assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA. However, comparison of DNA damage levels between laboratories can be difficult due to differences in assay protocols (e.g. lysis conditions, enzyme treatment, the duration of the alkaline treatment and electrophoresis) and in the end points used for reporting results (e.g. %DNA in tail, arbitrary units, tail moment and tail length). One way to facilitate comparisons is to convert primary comet assay end points to number of lesions/106 bp by calibration with ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-laboratory variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA by the comet assay in terms of oxidized purines converted to strand breaks with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG). Coded samples with DNA oxidation damage induced by treatment with different concentrations of photosensitizer (Ro 19-8022) plus light and calibration samples irradiated with ionizing radiation were distributed to the 10 participating laboratories to measure DNA damage using their own comet assay protocols. Nine of 10 laboratories reported the same ranking of the level of damage in the coded samples. The variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA was largely due to differences in protocols. After conversion of the data to lesions/106 bp using laboratory-specific calibration curves, the variation between the laboratories was reduced. The contribution of the concentration of photosensitizer to the variation in net FPG-sensitive sites increased from 49 to 73%, whereas the inter-laboratory variation decreased. The participating laboratories were successful in finding a dose–response of oxidatively damaged DNA in coded samples, but there remains a need to standardize the protocols to enable direct comparisons between laboratories.

 
 
 
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