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Articles by G. A Coetzee
Total Records ( 3 ) for G. A Coetzee
  X Jiang , J. E Castelao , J. M Yuan , S Groshen , M. C Stern , D. V Conti , V. K Cortessis , G. A Coetzee , M. C Pike and M. Gago Dominguez

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between hypertension, hypertension medication and bladder cancer risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in Los Angeles. Non-Asians between the ages of 25 and 64 years with histologically confirmed bladder cancers diagnosed between 1987 and 1996 were identified through the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. A total of 1585 cases and their age-, gender- and race-matched neighborhood controls were included in the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between history of hypertension, medication use and bladder cancer risk. A history of hypertension was not related to bladder cancer; however, among hypertensive individuals, there was a significant difference in bladder cancer risk related to the use of diuretics or antihypertensive drugs (P for heterogeneity = 0.004). Compared with individuals without hypertension, hypertensive individuals who regularly used diuretics/antihypertensives had a similar risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86–1.30], whereas untreated hypertensive subjects had a 35% reduction in risk (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48–0.88). A greater reduction in bladder cancer risk was observed among current-smokers (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.27–0.71) and carriers of GSTM1-null (homozygous absence) genotypes (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22–0.85). Similarly, among smokers with GSTM1-null genotype, levels of 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts were significantly lower among untreated hypertensive individuals (45.7 pg/g Hb) compared with individuals without hypertension (79.8 pg/g Hb) (P = 0.009). In conclusion, untreated hypertension was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer.

  S. K Baniwal , O Khalid , D Sir , G Buchanan , G. A Coetzee and B. Frenkel

Runx2 and androgen receptor (AR) are master transcription factors with pivotal roles in bone metabolism and prostate cancer (PCa). We dissected AR-mediated repression of Runx2 in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated osteoblastic and PCa cells using reporter assays and endogenous Runx2 target genes. Repression required DHT, but not AR’s transactivation function, and was associated with nuclear colocalization of the two proteins. Runx2 and AR coimmunoprecipitated and interacted directly in glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Interaction was ionic in nature. Intact AR DNA-binding domain (DBD) was necessary and sufficient for both interaction with Runx2 and its repression. Runx2 sequences required for interaction were the C-terminal 132 amino acid residues together with the Runt DBD. Runx2 DNA binding was abrogated by endogenous AR in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and by recombinant AR-DBD in gel shift assays. Furthermore, AR caused increased nuclear mobility of Runx2 as indicated by faster fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Thus, AR binds Runx2 and abrogates its binding to DNA and possibly to other nuclear components. Clinical relevance of our results was suggested by an inverse correlation between expression of AR-responsive prostate-specific antigen and osteocalcin genes in PCa biopsies. Given the tumor suppressor properties of Runx2, its repression by AR may constitute a mechanism of hormone carcinogenesis. Attenuation of Runx2 by AR in osteoblasts may play a role in skeletal metabolism: the bone-sparing effect of androgens is attributable, in part, to keeping Runx2 activity in check and preventing high-turnover bone disease such as seen after castration and in transgenic mice overexpressing Runx2 in osteoblasts.

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