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Articles by G Wu
Total Records ( 3 ) for G Wu
  C Bauchart Thevret , L Cui , G Wu and D. G. Burrin

Arginine is an indispensable amino acid in neonates and is required for growth. Neonatal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are capable of arginine transport, catabolism, and synthesis and express nitric oxide (NO) synthase to produce NO from arginine. Our aim was to determine whether arginine directly stimulates IEC growth and protein synthesis and whether this effect is mediated via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is NO-dependent. We studied neonatal porcine IEC (IPEC-J2) cultured in serum- and arginine-free medium with increasing arginine concentrations for 4 or 48 h. Our results show that arginine enhances IPEC-J2 cell survival and protein synthesis, with a maximal response at a physiological concentration (0.1–0.5 mM). Addition of arginine increased the activation of mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 (p70 S6) kinase, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The arginine-induced protein synthesis response was not inhibited by the NO inhibitors nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and aminoguanidine, despite inducible NO synthase expression in IPEC-J2 cells. Moreover, protein synthesis was not increased or decreased in some cases by addition of an NO donor (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine), arginine precursors (proline and citrulline) in the absence of arginine, or insulin; S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine suppressed phosphorylation of mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, and 4E-BP1. We found a markedly higher arginase activity in IPEC-J2 cells than in primary pig IEC. Furthermore, mTOR inhibition by rapamycin partially (42%) reduced the arginine-induced protein synthesis response and phosphorylation of mTOR and 4E-BP1. We conclude that arginine-dependent cell survival and protein synthesis signaling in IPEC-J2 cells are mediated by mTOR, but not by NO.

  F. W Bazer , G Wu , T. E Spencer , G. A Johnson , R. C Burghardt and K. Bayless

Uterine receptivity to implantation varies among species, and involves changes in expression of genes that are coordinate with attachment of trophectoderm to uterine lumenal and superficial glandular epithelia, modification of phenotype of uterine stromal cells, silencing of receptors for progesterone and estrogen, suppression of genes for immune recognition, alterations in membrane permeability to enhance conceptus-maternal exchange of factors, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, increased vascularity of the endometrium, activation of genes for transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen, and enhanced signaling for pregnancy recognition. Differential expression of genes by uterine epithelial and stromal cells in response to progesterone, glucocorticoids, prostaglandins and interferons may influence uterine receptivity to implantation in mammals. Uterine receptivity to implantation is progesterone-dependent; however, implantation is preceded by loss of expression of receptors for progesterone (PGR) so that progesterone most likely acts via PGR-positive stromal cells throughout pregnancy. Endogenous retroviruses expressed by the uterus and/or blastocyst also affect implantation and placentation in various species. Understanding the roles of the variety of hormones, growth factors and endogenous retroviral proteins in uterine receptivity for implantation is essential to enhancing reproductive health and fertility in humans and domestic animals.

  Y Wei , Y Ge , F Zhou , H Chen , C Cui , D Liu , Z Yang , G Wu , J Gu and J. Jiang

ATF5, a member of ATF/CREB family of b-ZIP transcription factors, is highly expressed in a wide variety of neoplasms and regulates cell differentiation, cell survival and apoptosis. However, the mechanism of human ATF5 transcriptional regulation has not been clarified. Here, we identified the transcription start site of the ATF5 gene, cloned its 5'-flanking region and identified the region –105 to +3 relative to the transcription start site as that having promoter activity. This region contained potential binding sites for several transcription factors, including EBF1, Sp1 and E2F1. EBF1 transcription factor binds to the ATF5 promoter and regulates the ATF5 transcription in an EBF-binding site independent manner. Thus, our studies not only provided molecular basis of ATF5 transcriptional regulation, but also identified ATF5 as a target gene of EBF1 transcription factor.

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