Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by G Kumar
Total Records ( 4 ) for G Kumar
  V Chu , H. J Einolf , R Evers , G Kumar , D Moore , S Ripp , J Silva , V Sinha , M Sinz and A. Skerjanec
 

Cytochrome P450 (P450) induction is one of the factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug molecule upon multiple dosing, and it can result in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with coadministered drugs causing potential therapeutic failures. In recent years, various in vitro assays have been developed and used routinely to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions due to P450 induction. There is a desire from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies to harmonize assay methodologies, data interpretation, and the design of clinical drug-drug interaction studies. In this article, a team of 10 scientists from nine Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) member companies conducted an anonymous survey among PhRMA companies to query current practices with regards to the conduct of in vitro induction assays, data interpretation, and clinical induction study practices. The results of the survey are presented in this article, along with reviews of current methodologies of in vitro assays and in vivo studies, including modeling efforts in this area. A consensus recommendation regarding common practices for the conduct of P450 induction studies is included.

  C Li , M Kuchimanchi , D Hickman , L Poppe , M Hayashi , Y Zhou , R Subramanian , G Kumar and S. Surapaneni
 

Motesanib diphosphate is a novel, investigational, highly selective oral inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the stem cell factor receptor (Kit). The in vitro metabolic profiles of [14C]motesanib were examined by using microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans. Several oxidative metabolites were observed and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and coinjection with authentic standards. Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 is the major isozyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of motesanib, but the CYP2D6 and CYP1A isozymes also make minor contributions. In hepatocyte incubations, oxidative and conjugative pathways were observed for all species examined, and indoline N-glucuronidation was the dominant pathway. Three less common and novel phase II conjugates of the indoline nitrogen were detected in hepatocytes and in microsomes supplemented with specific cofactors, including N-carbamoyl glucuronide, N-glucose, and N-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine. An N-glucuronide metabolite was the most frequently observed phase II conjugate in liver microsomes of all species, whereas the N-acetylglucosamine conjugate was observed only in monkey liver microsomes. Incubations with recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and inhibition by the UGT1A4 and UGT1A1 substrates/inhibitors imipramine and bilirubin suggested that UGT1A4 is the major UGT isozyme catalyzing the N-glucuronidation of motesanib, with a minor contribution from UGT1A1. The in vitro metabolic profiles were similar between the human and preclinical species examined. All metabolites found in humans were also detected in other species.

  V Chu , H. J Einolf , R Evers , G Kumar , D Moore , S Ripp , J Silva , V Sinha , M Sinz and A. Skerjanec
 

Cytochrome P450 (P450) induction is one of the factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug molecule upon multiple dosing, and it can result in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with coadministered drugs causing potential therapeutic failures. In recent years, various in vitro assays have been developed and used routinely to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions due to P450 induction. There is a desire from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies to harmonize assay methodologies, data interpretation, and the design of clinical drug-drug interaction studies. In this article, a team of 10 scientists from nine Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) member companies conducted an anonymous survey among PhRMA companies to query current practices with regards to the conduct of in vitro induction assays, data interpretation, and clinical induction study practices. The results of the survey are presented in this article, along with reviews of current methodologies of in vitro assays and in vivo studies, including modeling efforts in this area. A consensus recommendation regarding common practices for the conduct of P450 induction studies is included.

  C Li , M Kuchimanchi , D Hickman , L Poppe , M Hayashi , Y Zhou , R Subramanian , G Kumar and S. Surapaneni
 

Motesanib diphosphate is a novel, investigational, highly selective oral inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the stem cell factor receptor (Kit). The in vitro metabolic profiles of [14C]motesanib were examined by using microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans. Several oxidative metabolites were observed and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and coinjection with authentic standards. Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 is the major isozyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of motesanib, but the CYP2D6 and CYP1A isozymes also make minor contributions. In hepatocyte incubations, oxidative and conjugative pathways were observed for all species examined, and indoline N-glucuronidation was the dominant pathway. Three less common and novel phase II conjugates of the indoline nitrogen were detected in hepatocytes and in microsomes supplemented with specific cofactors, including N-carbamoyl glucuronide, N-glucose, and N-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine. An N-glucuronide metabolite was the most frequently observed phase II conjugate in liver microsomes of all species, whereas the N-acetylglucosamine conjugate was observed only in monkey liver microsomes. Incubations with recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and inhibition by the UGT1A4 and UGT1A1 substrates/inhibitors imipramine and bilirubin suggested that UGT1A4 is the major UGT isozyme catalyzing the N-glucuronidation of motesanib, with a minor contribution from UGT1A1. The in vitro metabolic profiles were similar between the human and preclinical species examined. All metabolites found in humans were also detected in other species.

 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility