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Articles by G Kim
Total Records ( 2 ) for G Kim
  M Hofmann Bowman , J Wilk , A Heydemann , G Kim , J Rehman , J. A Lodato , J Raman and E. M. McNally
 

Rationale: S100A12 is a small calcium binding protein that is a ligand of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products). RAGE has been extensively implicated in inflammatory states such as atherosclerosis, but the role of S100A12 as its ligand is less clear.

Objective: To test the role of S100A12 in vascular inflammation, we generated and analyzed mice expressing human S100A12 in vascular smooth muscle under control of the smooth muscle 22 promoter because S100A12 is not present in mice.

Methods and Results: Transgenic mice displayed pathological vascular remodeling with aberrant thickening of the aortic media, disarray of elastic fibers, and increased collagen deposition, together with increased latent matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein and reduction in smooth muscle stress fibers leading to a progressive dilatation of the aorta. In primary aortic smooth muscle cell cultures, we found that S100A12 mediates increased interleukin-6 production, activation of transforming growth factor β pathways and increased metabolic activity with enhanced oxidative stress. To correlate our findings to human aortic aneurysmal disease, we examined S100A12 expression in aortic tissue from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and found increased S100A12 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Conclusions: S100A12 expression is sufficient to activate pathogenic pathways through the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular remodeling in vivo.

  G. H Kim , K Park , S. Y Yeom , K. J Lee , G Kim , J Ko , D. K Rhee , Y. H Kim , H. K Lee , H. W Kim , G. T Oh , K. U Lee , J. W Lee and S. W. Kim
 

Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2) functions as a transcriptional coactivator of many nuclear receptors and also plays important roles in the physiology of the liver and pancreas by interacting with liver X receptors (LXRs), which antagonize the development of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to establish the specific function of ASC-2 in macrophages and atherogenesis. Intriguingly, ASC-2 was more highly expressed in macrophages than in the liver and pancreas. To inhibit LXR-specific activity of ASC-2, we used DN2, which contains the C-terminal LXXLL motif of ASC-2 and thereby acts as an LXR-specific, dominant-negative mutant of ASC-2. In DN2-overexpressing transgenic macrophages, cellular cholesterol content was higher and cholesterol efflux lower than in control macrophages. DN2 reduced LXR ligand-dependent increases in the levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) transcripts as well as the activity of luciferase reporters driven by the LXR response elements (LXREs) of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE genes. These inhibitory effects of DN2 were reversed by overexpression of ASC-2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that ASC-2 was recruited to the LXREs of the ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE genes in a ligand-dependent manner and that DN2 interfered with the recruitment of ASC-2 to these LXREs. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-null mice receiving bone marrow transplantation from DN2-transgenic mice showed accelerated atherogenesis when administered a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results indicate that suppression of the LXR-specific activity of ASC-2 results in both defective cholesterol metabolism in macrophages and accelerated atherogenesis, suggesting that ASC-2 is an antiatherogenic coactivator of LXRs in macrophages.

 
 
 
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