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Articles by G Kanayama
Total Records ( 2 ) for G Kanayama
  D. J Grelotti , G Kanayama and H. G. Pope

Illicit methamphetamine abuse represents a major problem in many countries worldwide, including the United States. Prolonged regular smoking or injection of methamphetamine can cause a psychosis, typically characterized by paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations and often associated with disturbances in mood. These symptoms may persist long after methamphetamine is discontinued and may prove refractory to antipsychotic medications. The authors describe a patient who developed a typical methamphetamine psychosis that persisted despite months of abstinence from methamphetamine and weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication but that responded promptly to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on two separate occasions: on initial presentation and again a year later when the patient relapsed into methamphetamine abuse and developed psychosis again. The authors review the large international literature on methamphetamine psychosis, much of which is from Japan and has not previously been summarized in English. Persistent methamphetamine psychosis has been widely reported in Japan for more than 50 years but is rarely discussed in the American literature, possibly because some such cases are misdiagnosed in the United States as primary psychotic disorders. Given the growing public health problem of methamphetamine abuse in the United States, the distinction between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and a primary psychotic disorder has grown increasingly important. Thus, American clinicians should be alert to the possibility of methamphetamine psychosis and may wish to consider ECT in refractory cases.

  A. L Baggish , R. B Weiner , G Kanayama , J. I Hudson , M. H Picard , A. M Hutter and H. G. Pope

Although illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is widespread, the cardiac effects of long-term AAS use remain inadequately characterized. We compared cardiac parameters in weightlifters reporting long-term AAS use to those in otherwise similar weightlifters without prior AAS exposure.

Methods and Results—

We performed 2D tissue-Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiography to assess left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV systolic strain, and conventional indices of diastolic function in long-term AAS users (n=12) and otherwise similar AAS nonusers (n=7). AAS users (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] cumulative lifetime AAS exposure, 468 [169, 520] weeks) closely resembled nonusers in age, prior duration of weightlifting, and current intensity of weight training. LV structural parameters were similar between the two groups; however, AAS users had significantly lower LV ejection fraction (50.6% [48.4, 53.6] versus 59.1% [58.0%, 61.7%]; P=0.003 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test), longitudinal strain (16.9% [14.0%, 19.0%] versus 21.0% [20.2%, 22.9%]; P=0.004), and radial strain (38.3% [28.5%, 43.7%] versus 50.1% [44.3%, 61.8%]; P=0.02). Ten of the 12 AAS users showed LV ejection fractions below the accepted limit of normal (≥55%). AAS users also demonstrated decreased diastolic function compared to nonusers as evidenced by a markedly lower early peak tissue velocity (7.4 [6.8, 7.9] cm/s versus 9.9 [8.3, 10.5] cm/s; P=0.005) and early-to-late diastolic filling ratio (0.93 [0.88, 1.39] versus 1.80 [1.48, 2.00]; P=0.003).


Cardiac dysfunction in long-term AAS users appears to be more severe than previously reported and may be sufficient to increase the risk of heart failure.

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