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Articles by G Bandyopadhyay
Total Records ( 3 ) for G Bandyopadhyay
  M Saberi , D Bjelica , S Schenk , T Imamura , G Bandyopadhyay , P Li , V Jadhar , C Vargeese , W Wang , K Bowman , Y Zhang , B Polisky and J. M. Olefsky
 

The transcription factor TORC2 [transducer of regulated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) activity 2] is a major regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis and is increased in hyperglycemic rodent models. Because chronic hyperglycemia and increased hepatic glucose production, via increased gluconeogenesis, is a key feature of type 2 diabetes, an effective in vivo method to efficiently knock down TORC2 could provide a potential therapy for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. To assess this, primary mouse hepatocytes, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were treated with a siRNA against TORC2 (siTORC2), which was delivered via a novel lipid nanoparticle system, or control siRNA (siCON). Compared with siCON, administration of siTORC2 resulted in highly efficient, sustained (1–3 wk) knockdown of TORC2 and its gluconeogenic target genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phophatase in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the livers of HFD-fed mice. In mice, this knockdown was specific to the liver and did not occur in kidney, skeletal muscle, or adipose tissue. In HFD-fed mice, siTORC2 reduced in vivo gluconeogenic capacity, fasting hepatic glucose production, and hyperglycemia, and led to improved hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. siTORC2 treatment also improved systemic hyperglycemia in ZDF rats. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the importance of TORC2 in modulating HGP in vivo and highlight a novel, liver-specific siRNA approach for the potential treatment of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes.

  M. P Sajan , G Bandyopadhyay , A Miura , M. L Standaert , S Nimal , S. L Longnus , E Van Obberghen , I Hainault , F Foufelle , R Kahn , U Braun , M Leitges and R. V. Farese
 

Activators of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), metformin, and exercise activate atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and ERK and stimulate glucose transport in muscle by uncertain mechanisms. Here, in cultured L6 myotubes: AICAR- and metformin-induced activation of AMPK was required for activation of aPKC and ERK; aPKC activation involved and required phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylation of Thr410-PKC-; aPKC Thr410 phosphorylation and activation also required MEK1-dependent ERK; and glucose transport effects of AICAR and metformin were inhibited by expression of dominant-negative AMPK, kinase-inactive PDK1, MEK1 inhibitors, kinase-inactive PKC-, and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of PKC-. In mice, muscle-specific aPKC (PKC-) depletion by conditional gene targeting impaired AICAR-stimulated glucose disposal and stimulatory effects of both AICAR and metformin on 2-deoxyglucose/glucose uptake in muscle in vivo and AICAR stimulation of 2-[3H]deoxyglucose uptake in isolated extensor digitorum longus muscle; however, AMPK activation was unimpaired. In marked contrast to AICAR and metformin, treadmill exercise-induced stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose/glucose uptake was not inhibited in aPKC-knockout mice. Finally, in intact rodents, AICAR and metformin activated aPKC in muscle, but not in liver, despite activating AMPK in both tissues. The findings demonstrate that in muscle AICAR and metformin activate aPKC via sequential activation of AMPK, ERK, and PDK1 and the AMPK/ERK/PDK1/aPKC pathway is required for metformin- and AICAR-stimulated increases in glucose transport. On the other hand, although aPKC is activated by treadmill exercise, this activation is not required for exercise-induced increases in glucose transport, and therefore may be a redundant mechanism.

  T Yoshizaki , S Schenk , T Imamura , J. L Babendure , N Sonoda , E. J Bae , D. Y Oh , M Lu , J. C Milne , C Westphal , G Bandyopadhyay and J. M. Olefsky
 

Chronic inflammation is an important etiology underlying obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and recent findings indicate that the macrophage can be the initiating cell type responsible for this chronic inflammatory state. The mammalian silent information regulator 2 homolog SIRT1 modulates several physiological processes important for life span, and a potential role of SIRT1 in the regulation of insulin sensitivity has been shown. However, with respect to inflammation, the role of SIRT1 in regulating the proinflammatory pathway within macrophages is poorly understood. Here, we show that knockdown of SIRT1 in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell line and in intraperitoneal macrophages broadly activates the JNK and IKK inflammatory pathways and increases LPS-stimulated TNF secretion. Moreover, gene expression profiles reveal that SIRT1 knockdown leads to an increase in inflammatory gene expression. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 activators inhibit LPS-stimulated inflammatory pathways, as well as secretion of TNF, in a SIRT1-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells and in primary intraperitoneal macrophages. Treatment of Zucker fatty rats with a SIRT1 activator leads to greatly improved glucose tolerance, reduced hyperinsulinemia, and enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity during glucose clamp studies. These in vivo insulin-sensitizing effects were accompanied by a reduction in tissue inflammation markers and a decrease in the adipose tissue macrophage proinflammatory state, fully consistent with the in vitro effects of SIRT1 in macrophages. In conclusion, these results define a novel role for SIRT1 as an important regulator of macrophage inflammatory responses in the context of insulin resistance and raise the possibility that targeting of SIRT1 might be a useful strategy for treating the inflammatory component of metabolic diseases.

 
 
 
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