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Articles by Frederick Adzitey
Total Records ( 8 ) for Frederick Adzitey
  Frederick Adzitey
  In the present study, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method and the results interpreted using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 45 Escherichia coli isolates were screened against nine different antibiotics. Overall, 34.57% of the Escherichia coli isolates were resistant, 7.16% were intermediate and 58.27% were susceptible. Resistance to vancomycin (88.89%) and erythromycin (68.89%) was high. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (95.56%), amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (86.67%), suphamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (82.22%) and gentamicin (75.56%) was also high. The Escherichia coli isolates also exhibited 25 antibiotic resistant patterns with the pattern VaE (vancomycin and erythromycin) and VaCCro (vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone) being the commonest (each exhibited by five different isolates). Multiple Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR index) ranged from 0.11-0.78. Resistance to seven (MAR index of 0.78) and five (MAR index of 0.56) different antibiotics was exhibited by 1 and 3 isolates, respectively. Some Escherichia coli isolates from different sources did exhibit the same resistance pattern. This study established the fact that Escherichia coli from meat and it related samples in Techiman Municipality were resistant to some antibiotics. Therefore, the use of antibiotics in the treatment of animals in the Municipality ought to be checked and controlled to prevent more isolates from becoming resistant. To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first report on the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from beef and its related samples in Techiman Municipality of Ghana.
  Frederick Adzitey , Gabriel Ayum Teye and Innocent Allan Anachinaba
  The study was conducted to determine the microbial quality of fresh (raw or uncooked) and smoked guinea fowl meats sold in the Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana. Observations were also made to know the hygienic conditions under which guinea fowls are slaughtered and smoked. Guinea fowl meat samples were obtained from five different retail shops in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Twenty meat samples each (10 fresh and 10 smoked guinea fowl meats) were collected from five different retail shops. Collected samples were analyzed microbiologically using a modified procedure in the bacteriological analytical manual of the food and drugs administration-USA. Total aerobic count for the guinea fowl meats ranged from 3.63-6.19 log CFU cm-2; so that, it was 3.99-6.19 log CFU cm-2 for fresh guinea fowl meat in compared with smoked guinea fowl’s bacteria load that ranged from 3.63-5.25 CFU cm-2 (p<0.05). Fresh guinea fowl meat from Next Door (6.19 log CFU cm-2) was the most contaminated meat sample and smoked guinea fowl meat from Speed Link (3.63 log CFU cm-2) was the least contaminated meat sample. Bacterial species identified on the fresh and smoked guinea fowl meat samples were Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp. and Bacillus spp. Staphylococcus spp. and Bacillus spp., were the most common identified bacteria followed by Escherichia coli. Physical observation revealed that meat sellers were involved in unhygienic practices such as using of knives without sterilizing them, wearing of dirty aprons and clothes and busily conversing while smoking and selling meat. Generally the fresh guinea fowl meats had high microbial load than the smoked guinea fowl meats. Furthermore, fresh and smoked guinea fowl meat samples from Next Door were the most contaminated meat samples while fresh and smoked guinea fowl samples from Speed Link were the least contaminated meat samples. Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp. and Bacillus spp. were present in guinea fowl meats sold in the Bolgatanga Municipality.
  Frederick Adzitey , Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba and Gabriel Ayum Teye
  Background and Objective: The use of antibiotics in animal production is a major concern to health providers and consumers. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli in cow milk and hands of milkers. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 cow milk and hands of milkers were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Isolation of Escherichia coli was done using the convention method in the US Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analysis Manual (FDA-BAM). Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the disc diffusion method and the results interpreted using the clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines. Prevalence data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The overall prevalence of Escherichia coli in the milk and hand samples was 40.38%. The prevalence of Escherichia coli in milk collected directly from the udder, in milk collected from milking containers, right hand swabs and left hand swabs were 61.54, 57.69, 23.08 and 19.23%, respectively. The prevalence of Escherichia coli in milk samples was significantly higher (p<0.05) than hand samples. Twenty seven Escherichia coli isolated from the milk and hand samples were screened against 8 different antibiotics. Overall, 14.35% of the Escherichia coli isolates were resistant, 21.30% were intermediate and 64.35% were susceptible. Resistance to ceftriaxone (29.63%) was the highest, followed by tetracycline (25.93%) and ampicillin (22.22%). A relatively higher percentage of the isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to ampicillin (51.85%), erythromycin (48.15%) and chloramphenicol (37.04%). Escherichia coli isolates also exhibited 13 antibiotic resistant patterns. Five isolates were resistant to 3 or more different classes of antibiotics. Conclusion: This study revealed that Escherichia coli from cow milk and hands of milkers in the Nyankpala community are resistant to some antibiotics. Consumers are expose to Escherichia coli infection from drinking of milk produced in the Nyankpala community of Ghana.
  Frederick Adzitey
  This work reports for the first on the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in beef sold in the Tamale Metropolis. The conventional method was used to isolate Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from beef samples sold at the Tamale Metropolis. Seventy beef samples were obtained from seven different locations where meat is popularly sold in the Tamale Metropolis and analyzed microbiologically for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. by following procedures in the Bacteriological Analytical Manuel of the FDA-USA. The average prevalence of Escherichia coli was 56% and was highest in Location G (100%), followed by Location C (80%), Locations D and F (60%), Location B (50%) and Location E (40%). Escherichia coli was not isolated from Location A. The overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. in the beef samples was 31%. The location with the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was Location F (90%), followed by Location D (50%), Location E (30%) and Location C (20%). Locations A, B and G exhibited a prevalence of 10%. Locations with better hygienic standards exhibited low prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The study indicated that beef samples sold in the Tamale Metropolis were contaminated by Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Thus, consumers are exposed to Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. infections from consuming beef samples in Tamale.
  Frederick Adzitey , Gabriel Ayum Teye , Richard Boateng and Prosper Sangmen Dari
  This study was carried out to determine the effect of Prekese (Tetrapleura tetraptera) Seed Powder (PSP) on the sensory characteristics and nutritional qualities of smoke pork sausage. A total of 4 kg of minced pork was used. The pork was divided into four equal parts (1 kg per treatment). Each treatment contain the following: (T1) Control (without PSP), (T2) with 3 g of PSP, (T3) with 4 g of PSP and (T4) with 5 g of PSP. The sausages were stuffed into casing and vacuum sealed in transparent polythene bags and refrigerated at 2°C for laboratory and sensory analysis. The sensory analysis was conducted to determine the effect of Prekese seed powder on the sensory characteristics of the product. Crude fat, crude protein, moisture content and pH were determined to find out the effect of the seed powder on the nutritional qualities of the products. The results showed that, the inclusion of up to 5 g of PSP has no significant effects on taste, colour, prekese flavour, aroma and overall-liking. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the crude fat of the products but there were significant differences (p<0.05) in terms of moisture, crude protein and pH. Crude protein of T1, T3 and T4 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than T2. The moisture content of T2 product was the highest followed by T4, T1 and T3. pH of the products T1, T2 and T3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than T4.
  Frederick Adzitey
  Escherichia coli are mostly free living bacteria that harbour the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Howbeit, pathogenic Escherichia coli are very important foodborne pathogens that can cause severe complications, illnesses and deaths in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity or relatedness of 62 Escherichia coli strains isolated from ducks and the environment using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC). The analysis of the Escherichia coli strains by ERIC produced DNA bands of different sizes for differentiation purposes and cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the strains into different clusters and singletons. At this coefficient the Escherichia coli strains were grouped into thirteen clusters and eleven singletons with discriminatory index (D value) of 0.946. The ERIC PCR adapted in this study showed to be a useful genotyping tool for determining the genetic relatedness of the duck Escherichia coli strains. Comparison of the genetic relatedness among foodborne pathogens is important for foodborne diseases outbreak investigations.
  Frederick Adzitey , Andrew Kumah and Seddoh Bright K. Mensah
  Contamination of meat by heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity and bioaccumulation. These metals come from or are released into the environment and often have direct physiological toxic effects as they are stored or incorporated in tissues, sometimes permanently. This is the first study that reports on the presence and concentration of selected heavy metals in grilled and fresh beef/guinea fowl meat in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. The levels of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in fresh and grilled beef samples ranged from 0.19-0.80, 1.45-2.24, 0.05-0.09 and 0.63-1.63 mg kg-1, respectively with the exception of cadmium (Cd), which was not detected in the beef samples. Heavy metals concentration in the fresh and grilled beef samples did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from each other. In absolute terms, Mn, Zn and Cu were generally higher in fresh beef than grilled beef; Pb was higher in the grilled beef than in the fresh beef. The levels of heavy metals in fresh and grilled guinea fowl meat ranged from 0.28-0.45 mg kg-1 for Mn, 0.71-1.39 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.03-0.45 mg kg-1 for Cu and 0.41-0.70 mg kg-1 for Pb. The Cd was also not detected in the guinea fowl meat samples examined. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the fresh and grilled guinea fowl meat samples were found not to be statistically significant (p>0.05). In absolute terms, generally the fresh guinea fowl meat samples had higher concentrations of the heavy metals compared to the grilled guinea fowl meat samples. The concentration of manganese, copper, zinc and cadmium were below the permissible limits with the exception of lead. Therefore beef and guinea fowl meat samples in the Tamale Metropolis can be considered as being safe from the heavy metals examined in this study.
  Frederick Adzitey , Nafisah Sumaila and Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba
  The study was conducted to determine the occurrence of E. coli in drinking water sources used by humans and farm animals in Nyankpala community of Ghana. Isolation of E. coli was done using a slightly modified procedure in the US Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analysis Manual (FDA-BAM). A total of 200 water samples collected from six different water sources viz. sachet water (four different brands), tap water, well water, dam water, bottle water and water from the drinking troughs (drinkers) of farm animals were analysed. The average occurrence of E. coli in the different water samples was 58 (29%). The highest occurrence of E. coli was in well water 100% (20/20), followed by water from drinkers 80% (12/15), dam water 65% (13/20), rain water 50% (10/20) and tap water 10% (3/25). All sachet (0/80) and bottle water (0/20) samples were negative for E. coli. The number of well water samples positive for E. coli was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of dam water, sachet water, rain water and tap water. This work indicated that some drinking water samples (well, drinkers, dam, rain water and tap water) in the Nyankpala Community of Ghana are contaminated with E. coli and thus humans and farm animals are at risk of foodborne infections from drinking water from such sources.
 
 
 
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