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Articles by Ferdoushi Ahmed
Total Records ( 5 ) for Ferdoushi Ahmed
  Chamhuri Siwar , Ferdoushi Ahmed , Nor Diana Mohd Idris , Shaharudin Idrus , Amelia Hazreena Abdul Ghani and Siti Zalikha Zahari
  In Malaysia, poverty reduction has become a major concern in the development policies during the last few decades. However, the rate of poverty is still high in several states of the country. This study aims to estimate the poverty rate at smaller areas such as districts in the state of Pahang, Malaysia through poverty mapping. The study also examines the association of poverty status of the households with their socio-demographic characteristics in the state. The data was obtained from the Implementation and Coordination Unit (ICU), Malaysia which collected the information through household survey in the 11 districts in Pahang from 2008-2011. Summary descriptive statistics were applied to analyze socio-demographic characteristics of the surveyed households. ArcGIS 10 was used for poverty mapping to show spatial distribution of poverty. The findings show that majority of the districts in the state experienced high rate of poverty (on average, 18.50%). However, the number of hard-core poor families were found to be substantially low in each of the district. Incidences of poverty in rural areas are significantly higher than that of urban areas of the state. The greatest portions (90.17%) of poor households are the Malays. It was also found that the households whose heads are economically inactive mainly suffer from hard-core poverty in both rural and urban areas of the state. The findings of this study provide an insight about poverty statistics at smaller area and socio-demographic distribution of the poor households that might be helpful for the government in formulating the policies to reduce poverty rate at district, state as well as national level.
  Chamhuri Siwar , Ferdoushi Ahmed , Ahmad Bashawir and Md. Shahin Mia
  In recent years, urban poverty in Malaysia has been considered as an increasingly visible phenomenon due to impacts of urbanization. This study aims to assess the trends in urban poverty and urbanization in Malaysia during 1970-2012. The study also examines consequences of rapid urbanization and urban vulnerable group in the country. The study used empirical data on urbanization, household income, poverty, population at rural and urban level. The data were obtained from Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia and Department of Statistics, Malaysia. The findings reveal that there was a downward trend in urban poverty incidences. Poverty rate in urban areas decreased from 25.5% in 1970 to 1% in 2012. However, average monthly income of urban households is much higher (almost twice) than that of rural families which indicates a high income inequality in urban and rural level. The country experienced cumulative growth of urbanization during the last few decades. Level of urbanization was 34.2% in 1980 and reached to 71% in 2010. The country also observed a boom in urban population that swelled from 27% of total population in 1970 to 71% in 2010. Significant increase of urban population in a short span of time creates various problems including high cost of living, crime, social problem, environmental deterioration, unemployment and poverty. Therefore, to tackle the problems, it is urgently required to identify the location of poor in city, differences between poor areas, effectiveness of specific programs as well as design and best practice of urban poverty reduction programs and policies.
  Ferdoushi Ahmed and Chamhuri Siwar
  Nutritional status of the people of a country is mainly influenced by the food they intake regularly. Taking improper amount of food results in mal-nutrition (i.e., overweight, obese or under nutrition) which ultimately affects physical well-being of the people. Nutritional status of people is also closely linked with dietary fat intake. This paper focuses on food intake and nutritional status among adults in Malaysia. The paper reviews currently available information on dietary food intake and nutritional status of Malaysian adults. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Based on the review of literature, it was found that nutritional status of Malaysian adults is significantly correlated with their habit of food intake. Studies revealed that the persons who over estimate their dietary fat intake has significantly higher adjusted mean Body Mass Index (BMI) (25.79±0.76) than accurate estimators (24.09±0.42) or under-estimators (24.06±0.49). Moreover, the group of over-estimators has the highest proportion of overweight and obese (60%) compared to under-estimators (40.8) and accurate estimators (31.6%). The adjusted mean Waist Circumference (WC) is also comparatively higher among the persons who over estimate their dietary fat intake. It was reported that overweight and obesity are highly endemic in Malaysia. Overweight and obesity result in diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart diseases which cause premature deaths. Therefore, future research is urgently needed at both household and national level for further understanding the correlation between dietary food intake and nutritional status and consequently physical well-being of the people in the country.
  Chamhuri Siwar and Ferdoushi Ahmed
  Water is an essential element in maintaining life and needed for all social and economic endeavours. However, increase in world population and rapid socio-economic development imposes high pressure on water resources around the world. Therefore, water security is a global concern in recent times. This study aims to focus on various concepts and dimensions of water security. The study also highlights the elements of water security. The paper reviews currently available information on concepts, dimensions and elements of water security. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Literatures demonstrate that water security has multiple definitions depending on the definition of human and/or environmental need. Studies highlighted five key dimensions of water security, namely, household water security, economic water security, urban water security, environmental water security and resilience to water- related disasters. Studies also pointed out three key elements of water security viz. water access, water safety and water affordability. Literatures suggest that investing in water and sanitation and wastewater management will lead to increased levels of human health, reduced levels of poverty and indigence and increased opportunities for education and employment, resulting in overall national economic development. Therefore, mutual cooperation among various countries is urgently needed to achieve water security at national, regional as well as global level.
  Ferdoushi Ahmed , Chamhuri Siwar and Nor Aini Hj. Idris
  Microcredit programmes provide small loans to the very poor in order to undertake self employment and other financial and business activities giving them the ability to care for themselves and their families and thus, achieve a level of independence. Microcredit is also referred to as microfinance and micro lending which has demonstrated to be an effective tool in the ongoing struggle against poverty and enables those without access to lending institutions to borrow and start small business. The concept of AIM is to create out of the hardcore poor households, highly motivated individuals who are committed to earn an honest living and eventually move out of the poverty level. For that reason, Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia plays a major role in microcredit programmes of Malaysia. This study highlights on the AIM loan programme, financing scheme, loan disburse and achievement indicators of the Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) and also discusses the contribution of the AIM microcredit programme to poverty alleviation in Malaysia. The experience of the AIM shows that microcredit is the most important tool in efforts to reduce poverty.
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