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Articles by Farooq Anwar
Total Records ( 8 ) for Farooq Anwar
  Farooq Anwar , Nusrat Shaheen , Ghulam Shabir , Muhammad Ashraf , Khalid M. Alkharfy and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  The current study reports variation in antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents in the flowers and leaves of a medicinal herb Ghaneri (Lantana camara L.) as affected by different extraction solvents (80% methanol, 80% ethanol, absolute methanol and absolute ethanol). The antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring the reducing power, inhibition in linoleic acid peroxidation and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH●) scavenging activity. Of the extracts tested, flower extract produced by 80% methanol possessed maximum amount of total phenolics (21.4 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoids (13.8 g CE/100 g DW), reducing power (0.095 for extract concentration of 1.0 mg mL-1), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (83.3%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (72.3%). A significant difference was observed for phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in relation to different extraction solvents and plant parts analyzed (p<0.05) thus prompting the need for utilization of appropriate solvent media and material for isolation of maximum amount of antioxidants. The results of this study explore the potential of L. camara as a rich source of natural antioxidants for development of functional foods and nutraceutical applications.
  Asma Saeed , Bushra Sultana , Farooq Anwar , Muhammad Mushtaq , Khalid M. Alkharfy and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  The present study reports the antioxidant and antimutaganic potential of the aqueous (30 and 70%) and acidified (0.5 and 1 N) methanolic extracts from seeds and pods of green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). The Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC) of extracts were determined by Follin-Ciocalteu reagent. Antioxidant activity of the extracts produced was evaluated by the measurements of 2, 2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation method, whereas mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were assessed using Ames bacterial test. The TPC, scavenging of DPPH° and inhibition of linoleic acid were found to be 27.75-126.35 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 DW, 46-91% at 5 mg L-1 of extract concentration and 34-83%, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts of seeds and pods of green cardamom showed strong antimutagenic potential against mutant strains S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 while none of the extract showed mutagenicity. The results of this study support that the extracts from cardamom seeds and pods can be explored as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer as well as for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.
  Farooq Anwar , Shamsa Kanwal , Ghulam Shabir , Khalid M. Alkharfy and Anwar H. Gilani
  The current study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leave extracts from four different species of Mulberry (Morus nigra L., Morus alba L., Morus macroura Miq. and Morus laevigata W.). In addition to estimation of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by measuring the reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity. The yield of the extractable components from leaves ranged from 4.41-14.53 g/100 g Dry Weight (DW). The tested leave extracts exhibited widely variable amounts of total phenolics (3.14 to 11.38 g GAE/100g DW) and total flavonoids (0.53-5.83 g CE/100g DW). Reducing power of extracts at concentration 2.5 to 12.5 mg mL–1 ranged from 0.40-1.52. The leave extracts considerably inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation up to the level of 60.23-88.51% and also showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity with contribution 43.83-77.51%. The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the tested leave extracts varied considerably in relation to the species and extraction solvents employed. Overall, the aqueous-methanolic extract of Morus nigra exhibited the superior antioxidant and antimicrobial activities among others. The present results advocate that mulberry leaves are a potential candidate for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
  Farooq Anwar , Gulzar Muhammad , Muhammad Ajaz Hussain , Gokhan Zengin , Khalid M. Alkharfy , Muhammad Ashraf and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  Caper (Capparis spinosa L.), a drought tolerant plant belonging to genus Capparis of the family Capparidaceae is mainly distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropical and subtropical world. The plant, as a potential source of valuable nutrients such as vitamins (especially vitamin C), digestible protein, reducing sugars and essential minerals is valued for human food. The fruit of this plant, being a rich source of high-value components, is usually pickled and added to salads, sauces and jams. The plant has been used traditionally to prevent and/or treat a number of health disorders such as diabetes, hepatitis, obesity and kidney problems. Besides uses as an ingredient for food and feed, the contents of bioactive phytochemicals such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glucosinolates, tocopherols, polyprenols, isothiocyanates, carotenoids and phenolics, have allowed to envisage potential applications of C. spinosa as a health promoter plant. A broad range of pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, diuretic and hypoglycemic have been ascribed to different parts of C . spinosa. This comprehensive review describes the detailed profile of high-value nutrients and bioactives along with pharmacological and phyto-medicinal attributes of this multipurpose food plant with the aim to exploring its potential uses as ingredients for functional foods and nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry.
  Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar , Saleha Kiran , Usman Ali Ashfaq , Muhammad Rizwan Javed , Farooq Anwar , Muhammad Amjad Ali and Anwar ul Hassan Gilani
  Background: Dengue, a vector borne disease has become a crucial health concern globally. The search for a suitable dengue vaccine has been going on for the last few decades due to unavailability of any effective treatment. An efficient medication strategy is required to overcome the devastating effects of dengue. Now, computational biology has emerged as a novel tool to improve the domain of computer aided drug designing. The present study reports a complex-based pharmacophore computational modeling that elucidates important pharmacophoric features helpful for the inhibition of protease activity of NS2B/NS3 protein of Dengue Virus (DV). Materials and Methods: A seven featured pharmacophore model of DV NS2B/NS3 protease has been developed via crystal structure of NS2B/NS3 protease and its inhibitor complex in Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) pharmacophore constructing tool. The developed pharmacophore model was validated by a test database of the published inhibitors. Validated pharmacophore model was then used to virtually screen the potential compounds from ZINC database. The screened compounds were filtered by Lipinski’s rule of five and further evaluated through molecular docking studies. The results of docking and interaction studies were validated through binding affinity analysis and ADMET profiling. Results: Six hits (ZINC ID’s: 75163069, 59170698, 06395655, 32933073, 13728171 and 65395833) of different scaffolds having interactions with important active site residues (His51, Asp75, Ser135) were predicted. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the finding of the present study that predicted hits could serve as potential candidates to act as starting point in the development of novel and potent NS2B/NS3 protease inhibitors. The present modeling explores the significant role of the predicted hits towards blocking the replication of DV.
  Farooq Anwar , Khalid M. Alkharfy , Najeeb-ur-Rehman , Elsadig Hassan Khamis Adam and Anwar-ul-Hassan Gilani
  Objective: The objective of study was to assess the variation of volatiles and biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic) of essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha longifolia harvested from five regions of Saudi Arabia such as Al-Kharj, Al-Qassim, Dammam, Abha and Al-Madinah. Methodology: Within the regions, the hydro distilled essential oil yield varied from 0.66-1.52% (dry weight basis) with least contribution from Abha and the highest from Al-Qassim populations. The isolated oils were then analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) which confirmed the identification of a total of 18-33 volatile components in different M. longifolia ecotypes, representing 96.7-98.9% of the total oil composition. The oils were analytically characterized by occurrence of carvone (35.30-71.51%) as a principal compound, followed by limonene (5.73-28.45%) and 1, 6 dihydrocarveol (0-12.33%). Results: Results showed that trans-dihydrocarvone, 1,8-cineole, β-caryophyllene, β-bourbonene, germacrene D and bicyclosesquiphellandrene were also detected in considerable amounts. The oils mainly, showed notable (p<0.05) quantitative variations and were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (53.76-79.65%) followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (8.63-32.13%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (2.79-18.41%) and then oxygenated sesquiterpenes (0.77-2.18%). The oils (10.0 μg mL–1 concentration) exhibited notable antioxidant potential as assessed by the determination of DPPH• scavenging capacity (54.9-89.7%; IC50 4.4-8.5 μg mL–1) along with total phenols (0.7-4.7% mg GAE/100 g). Moreover, the oils, relative to major compound, carvone and reference compounds, showed moderate antifungal activity against A. niger , A. flavus and F. solani but were weekly active against bacteria such as E. coli and S. aureus. The oils exhibited moderate to good thrombolytic activity with clot lysis of 11.6-68.4% and low cytotoxicity (1.7-5.1%) in vitro. Except, antioxidant assays, the biological attributes of the oils tested were found to be fairly correlated with the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes and/or monoterpene hydrocarbons. Conclusion: Overall, the current findings revealed noteworthy variation in the (bioactives) composition and biological characteristics of the tested essential oils that can be mainly linked to the morphological and biochemical diversity of M. longifolia plants depending on the agro-ecological conditions of the areas/regions selected. The presently examined M. longifolia chemotypes from Saudi Arabia can be explored as a prospective source of carvone-rich essential oil with promising antioxidant, antimicrobial and thrombolytic activities. These results may also provide a scientific basis and support for the ethno medicinal uses of this species in traditional healing.
  Farooq Anwar , M. I. Bhanger and T. G. Kazi
  An objective procedure and technical study has been carried out that measure the degree of oxidation of vegetable oil samples stabilized with phenolic antioxidants. Traditionally used antioxidants were added with in the maximum permissible limit   (200 ppm) and samples of refined, bleached and deodorized Soybean oil were stored at ambient conditions for a period of one year. Analysis was performed periodically after each sixty days. Various chemical and instrumental methods were applied to test the oil deterioration that permit the distinction of oxidative alteration level during storage. Quantitative measurements revealed significantly higher rate of oxidative alteration and degradation in untreated samples during the early period of six to seven months as compare to the stabilized and treated samples. Treated samples were found to show more extensive degradative changes in the ending period of four to five months as compare to early period.
  M.A. Jakhrani , T.G. Kazi , G.H. Kazi , M.H.S. Wattoo and Farooq Anwar
  A new method has been developed by preparing complexes involving condensation of amino acids with 8-hydroxyquinoline and 8-hydroxyquinaldine. The products so obtained are being investigated for identification and quantitative estimation of amino acids using different spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence activity of newly synthesized products. The method adopted in our laboratories is rapid, versatile, reproducible and provides excellent results for adoption by analytical, agricultural and biomedical laboratories to estimate amino acids and metals in composite matrix at economical costs. 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine) and 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (8-hydroxyquinaldine) condensed with valine produced fluorescent complexes. The complexes have been investigated for identification and quantitative estimation of amino acids. By this method identification of amino acids in nano mole quantities has become possible by fluorescence activity of valine-8-hydroxyquinoline and valine-8-hydroxyquinaldine complexes involving different excitation and emission wave lengths. This fluorescence activity of complexes is 100 to 1000 times higher than assay method involving ninhydrin and amino acid analyzer.
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