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Articles by Farooq Ahmad
Total Records ( 8 ) for Farooq Ahmad
  Farooq Ahmad , Huang Hejiao and Wang Xiaolong
  This study introduces transition vectors based on place transitive matrix derived from graph theory, to study the structure of Petri nets using structure theoretical results that exists in Petri net theory. It has been established that transition vectors provide a simplified and more adequate approach than transitive matrix towards the structural analysis of PN. Some structural classes of Petri nets have been decided and basic concepts about the structure of Petri net have been derived through novel idea of transition vectors. Firstly new representation of place transitive matrix has been introduced for acyclic Petri nets. Secondly Petri net structure has been analyzed and an algorithm to find a directed cycle has been presented with a simplified representation, using transition vectors. Thirdly transition vectors have efficiently been used to identify the particular structures of Petri nets. Finally, useful concepts relevant to the structure of Petri nets have been derived.
  J.O. Dennis , M.S.B. Mat Sihat , A. Yousif Ahmed and Farooq Ahmad
  In this study, the properties of a modified MEMS Piezoresistive (PZR) Pressure Sensor device is investigated. The wheatstone bridge circuit configuration is used to arrange the implanted piezoresistors to measure small resistance change. In the methodology of the study CoventorWare simulation software is used to design and simulate the existing pressure sensor. Modification to improve the pressure sensor’s output was then made to the design. The modification made involved the incorporation of additional resistors in parallel with the existing resistors forming the Wheatstone bridge making them eight implanted resistors in all instead of four. Results showed that the modified sensor gives a lower output voltage when the x and y edge offsets are varied with a maximum output voltage of 96 mV compare to the typical sensor maximum output voltage of 185 mV. It also has a wider dynamic range from 0 to 9.5 MPa for pressure measurement as compared to the typical sensor, which has a range from 0 to 4.0 MPa.
  Saqlain Abbas , Ejaz Mehmood Ahmad Qureshi , Farooq Ahmad , Seemal Vehra and Amin U. Khan
  In this study determination of arsenic (As) contamination in the drinking water and urine of children along with its effect on their health status and intellectual functioning was assessed. The study was carried out in order to determine any correlation between intake of arsenic and intellectual functioning level of the children. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM) was administered on children of (8-15) years of age to assess their intellectual functioning and their health status was checked by measuring their height and weight. Water and urine sample were studied in both experimental and control group. In experimental area Arsenic level was above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible value which was compared with control area having arsenic level below WHO permissible value in both water and urine. An average 45% of arsenic level in drinking water samples was above WHO permissible value (10 μg/L). Considering urinary arsenic as a biomarker of exposure to arsenic through drinking water, it was found that an average of 50% of children of the experimental group were found to have arsenic in their urine ranging from a concentration of 0.01-0.0119 μg/L. Conclusively, this study showed that the intellectual functioning level of children drinking arsenic contaminated water was significantly lower as compared to those, drinking arsenic-free water.
  Farooq Ahmad , Amin U. Khan and Abdullah Yasar
  Eutrophication of water bodies is matter of concern for the last few decades because wastewater without treatment can cause serious health effects and disturb functioning of ecosystem. The objective of the current study was to utilize nutrient present in wastewater for algal growth and biodiesel production from harvested biomass of algae. Mixed algae culture (Microspora sp., Diatoms, Lyngbya sp., Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp. and Rhizoclonium sp.) collected from Botanic Garden of Government College University Lahore was grown in artificial ponds of 13.5 L capacity. Algal growth was monitored for six days by measuring its fresh and dry weight which showed almost similar results of 3.34 g/day and 3 g/day respectively. Uptake of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (55%), total phosphorous (61%), nitrate (97%), phosphate (93%), sulphate (34%) and chloride (41%) was carried by mixed algae culture from wastewater. Seasonal variation in the absorption of nutrients in alternate months of the year showed higher uptake in March, September and November due to favorable conditions for algal growth. Yield of biodiesel produced by transesterification of dried algal biomass was calculated to be 15.13% on an average. Quality of biodiesel was analyzed for kinematic viscosity (4.5 mm2/s), flash point (167°C), specific gravity (0.895 g/ml), iodine value (80 mg/g), acid number (0.65 mg. KOH/g) and water contents (32 mg/kg). It was found that the quality of biodiesel was according to the ASTM standards for biodiesel.
  Seemal Vehra , Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi and Farooq Ahmad
  To study the effect of age, gravidity, interval since last pregnancy and socioeconomic status (education and per capita income) on the development of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women. This descriptive study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of tertiary care hospital in Lahore. 150 pregnant women (50 in each trimester), attending antenatal clinic of tertiary care hospital was selected randomly. Information about socioeconomic and gestational status was collected with the help of semi structured questionnaire while 5cc venous blood was also collected for the estimation of Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia was based on history, percent hemoglobin and packed cell volume. In 150 selected patients, 80% had Hb within the range of 9-12 g/dl. Occurrence of anemia was most common in the age group of 20-30 years and it has statistically significant adverse effects on Hb level. It was also found that the Hb concentration was related to educational status of the pregnant women and Hb level improved significantly (p<0.05) with the increase in per capita family income. A directly proportional relationship of PCV and MCHC was found with Hb concentration. Fewer children, greater intervals between pregnancies and better socioeconomic status lead to lower probability of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.
  Muhammad Farhan , A.U. Khan , Abdul Wahid , Maqsood Ahmad and Farooq Ahmad
  Excessive use of pesticides are disturbing major components of ecosystems. Therefore their removal using biodegradation technique is the need of time. In present study, 35 microbial strains were isolated from industrial drain which carries effluents from chlorpyrifos manufacturing plant. These strains significantly differ in their ability against chlorpyrifos resistance and degradation. Out of these strains WW5 was found most resistant and effective in chlorpyrifos degradation. On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain WW5 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Biodegradation potential of WW5 strain was studied under different culture conditions like concentration of chlorpyrifos, carbon sources, pH and inoculum densities. In the presence of glucose chlorpyrifos was co-metabolized. High pH (8) and high inoculum density (108 CFU/mL) show most efficient results in biodegradation. Presence of other nutrients enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation probably due to high growth on easily metabolizable compounds which in turn favors biodegradation. The strain WW5 showed 94% degradation of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/L) within 18 days of incubation. This strain can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites, contaminated with chlorpyrifos.
  Maqsood Ahmad , Amin U. Khan , Abdul Wahid , Zahid Ali Butt , Muhammad Farhan and Farooq Ahmad
  Water samples were collected from 18 sampling sites including the three hospitals their Municipal Wastewater (MWW) drains receiving the hospital sewage and from the river Ravi. The occurrence and fate of ofloxacin (OFLX) and resistance of Vibrio cholerae due to the presence of OFLX was studied. It was found that 16 out of 18 sites were contaminated by the antibiotic. Highest concentration was observed in hospital wastewater (HWW) ranged from 7.31 to 39.13 μg/L and amount of OFLX in the municipal wastewater before mixing the hospital sewage was 0.26 to 0.43 μg/L and after mixing it raised up to 0.54 to 1.29 μg/L. At the entering point of the MWW drains to the river, concentration 0.44 and 0.31 μg/L were observed in the two drains carrying the HWW to the river, respectively. Upstream concentration from the point of entering of the first and second drains was 0.14 and 0.22 μg/L while the downstream concentration was 0.18 and 0.37 μg/L, respectively. The antibiotic was not detected from both the samples collected from the entering point of the river to the city and before entering of the first MWW drain, whereas the after mixing the first drain the concentration 0.043 μg/L was observed. The bacteria isolated from HWW, MWW drains and the river Ravi were 83% 66% and 83% resistant to OFLX, respectively.
  Farooq Ahmad , Saqlain Abbas , Zahid Ali Butt , Adnan Skhawat Ali , Rashid Mahmood , Maqsood Ahmad , Muhammad Farhan , Abdul Wahid , Muhammad Nawaz and Aqsa Iftikhar
  In this study bacterial flora of meat in chicken Shawarma (meat) were investigated from five different regions of Lahore. Samples were taken from internal and external part of Shwarma. The contamination was present in both external and internal part of meat. But external part was found to be little more contaminated as compared to internal part. Analysis of microbes includes E. coli, Salmonella, Aerobes and Coliforms. Microbs were found in order of Aerobes > E. coli > Salmonella there is not too much variation of contamination in different regions but there is variation among the number of bacteria. In every part Aerobes were in greater number as compared to E. coli and Salmonella. Shawarma analyzed from the Site III was more contaminated as compared to other sites. The external part of the product showed more microbial load as compared to internal part.
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