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Articles by F.W. Edens
Total Records ( 6 ) for F.W. Edens
  S. Wang and F.W. Edens
  Large comb (LC) broiler cockerels, with high levels of testosterone and corticosterone, survived acute heat stress while small comb (SC) cockerels, with low levels of testosterone and corticosterone were more susceptible to heat stress and suffered higher mortality rates. This phenomenon was related to the greater ability of the LC and the lesser ability of the SC broilers to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP), which are involved in acquisition and maintenance of thermotolerance. When broiler cockerels, selected for LC or SC, were exposed to acute heat stress, the synthesis of three HSP-hsp-90, hsp-70 and hsp-23 by peripheral blood leukocytes was elevated in both groups of broilers, but LC chickens responded with higher HSP synthesis than did SC chickens. One of the normal cellular proteins, actin, was depressed during the heat stress over 105 minutes. To determine whether steroid hormones, testosterone and corticosterone, influence the expression of HSP in chickens, exogenous testosterone and corticosterone were implanted in LC capons and metyrapone-fed LC capons, respectively. The plasma testosterone was raised in the testosterone-treated capons, was depressed in the capons and metyrapone-fed capons and was indicated indirectly by growth rate of the comb. The heat-induced synthesis of HSP was depressed by caponization and depressed further in the capons fed metyrapone, which blocks the synthesis pathway of endogenous corticosterone in adrenal glands. The exogenous testosterone and to a lesser degree, corticosterone, stimulated the expression of HSP in heat-stressed capons. The results suggested that the steroid hormones, testosterone and corticosterone, are involved in the expression of HSP, which are associated with acquired and maintained thermoresistance in domestic chickens.
  Read-Snyder Jessica , F.W. Edens , A.H. Cantor , A.J. Pescatore and J.L. Pierce
  Enteric Avian Reoviruses (ARV), associated with malabsorption, lower weight gains and increased mortality in broiler chickens, target enterocytes on intestinal villi causing villus dysfunction and decreased digestion and absorption of nutrients. This investigation examined whether enteric ARV infection with or without dietary Selenium (Se) (organic or inorganic) affected small intestinal integrity. Eggs from Cobb 500® broiler breeders fed low-Se semi-purified diets with no supplemental Se, or with 0.3 ppm supplemental Se provided by organic Se (Se-yeast, Sel-Plex®, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY, USA), or by sodium selenite, were hatched and the chicks were subjected to the same three dietary Se treatments as their respective parents. At hatch, 30 chicks per dietary Se treatment were placed into either control or ARV-infected groups in heated batteries in separate isolation rooms. ARV-infected chickens were given orally ARV-CU98 (104.2 pfu/chick in 0.5 mL) and control chickens received medium only. Intestinal tracts from 21-d-old chickens were examined histomorphometrically revealing longer and more narrow villi, greater surface perimeter, more shallow crypt depth and significantly greater height to crypt depth (H:D) ratios in Sel-Plex-fed control and infected birds, compared with respective values from birds fed no supplemental Se or sodium selenite. The differences in H:D ratios between Se treatments indicates that Sel-Plex is more effective than either no Se or sodium selenite supplementation in protecting the integrity of the small intestine villi.
  F.W. Edens and A.E. Sefton
  Sodium Selenite (SEL) has been the traditional source of Selenium (Se) in poultry diets, but Sel-Plex® (SP, a source of organic selenium in yeast protein, Alltech Inc.) has become widely used in several countries signaling its importance as a replacement for SEL. SP is equivalent or even superior to SEL in terms of gut absorption, performance, induction of whole body feathering and tissue retention. Therefore, it was important to extend our understanding of the influence of selenium on performance characteristics of poultry by comparing the influence of SEL or SP in broiler breeder roosters. In the first part of this investigation, 14-week-old roosters were fed diets that contained SEL, SP, or no supplemental selenium (deficient). Selenium-supplemented roosters produced semen at 19 weeks of age while selenium-deficient roosters did not produce semen until 26 weeks of age. Semen quality, as indicated by spermatozoal morphology, was best for SP-fed roosters and SEL-fed roosters produced semen with a quality that was intermediate between SP-fed and selenium-deficient rooster semen quality. In the second part of this investigation, adult roosters in a commercial setting were fed SEL at 0.3 ppm Se/kg of diet until they were 19 weeks of age and then half of the males on each of two farms were fed SP at 0.3 ppm Se/kg of diet. At 32 and 42 weeks of age, semen samples were evaluated via microscopy for quality based on spermatozoal morphology and spectrophotometric analysis to determine a sperm quality index, consisting of a composite determined by sperm motility and sperm density in the semen sample. The results from the laboratory trial and the field trial suggest that SP is superior to SEL as a source of selenium for broiler breeder males. This conclusion was further supported by histological evaluation of testicular tissues from roosters fed either no supplemental selenium, SP or SEL.
  F.W. Edens
  Homologous chicken prolactin (chPRL) and turkey prolactin (trPRL) radioimmunoassays were used to assess the effects of gender, age and reproductive status on serum prolactin concentrations in several varieties and species of poultry. Adult males (chickens, turkeys [domestic and wild], Coturnix quail and chukar partridges had lower serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations than did their female counterparts. Aging in meat-type female chickens appeared to be associated with increasing PRL concentrations, but aging of White Leghorn chickens did not result in increased serum prolactin concentrations. Aging in males did not alter serum prolactin concentrations. In female chukar partridges, serum prolactin concentrations were similar to that of White Leghorn hens and male chukar serum prolactin concentrations were similar to levels found in male chickens. Serum prolactin concentrations in Coturnix males and females, with females having greater serum prolactin than males, were generally higher than in males and females of other fowl involved in this study. Broodiness was associated with greatly elevated serum prolactin concentrations. The serum prolactin concentrations derived from the use of the chPRL assay as a heterologous assay for chukar and domestic and wild turkeys, yielded results that were lower but in parallel with results from trPRL assay. The homologous chicken PRL radioimmunoassay appeared to be useful as a heterologous assay for domestic and wild turkey and for chukar partridge PRL.
  Z.S. Lowman , F.W. Edens , C.M. Ashwell and S.J. Nolin
  In field trials, heat-exposed chickens given Actigen®, a second generation mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maintained good intestinal health and performance. This investigation explored the influence of Actigen® on heat shock protein (HSP) responses in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Gender-segregated broilers were given either a control or Actigen®-supplemented (800 g/ton in starter, 400 g/ton in grower and 200 g/ton in finisher) diet over a 6 week growing period. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, broilers of each gender on each diet were exposed to 41°C for 1 h in a temperature-controlled chamber while controls were maintained at 24°C. After heat exposure, liver and ileum tissues were collected and preserved in RNAlater for determination of gene expression via Real Time PCR. Significant differences in mRNA expression for HSP90A, HSP90AA and HSP90B due to gender were found in the ileum, but no gender-related differences for these HSPs were found in the liver. In all heat-exposed birds, gene expression was elevated for HSP90A, HSP90AA, HSP90B, HSP70 and HSP60 in both liver and ileum with males at 3 and 6 weeks of age showing the greater HSP response. Lower Actigen®-related HSP90AA and HSP90B mRNA expression in the liver suggested that Actigen® potentially modified HSP expression outside the intestinal tract. Actigen® mechanism (s) of action outside the intestine are equivocal, but they might be indirect. Lower HSP mRNA expression in Actigen®-fed birds indicated that the supplement can modify the HSP response while allowing continued good performance during heat-exposure.
  K.M. Gowdy , F.W. Edens and K.Z. Mahmoud
  An experiment was conducted to measure thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activity in organs and TrxR activity in liver subcellular fractions in young broiler chickens. Broilers were fed either a (1) Control basal diet (no supplemental selenium but with a background level of 0.095 mg/kg) or diets providing supplemental selenium at 0.3 mg/kg as either (2) sodium selenite (SE; inorganic selenium), (3) Sel-Plex® (SY; organic selenium yeast), or (4) a combination (SS) of 0.15 mg/kg of both selenium forms. GSH-Px (measured in liver only) and TrxR activities were elevated by selenium, regardless of dietary form, in each organ examined. The TrxR activities in subcellular fractions were greatest in the mitochondrial lysate, nuclear pellet and post-mitochondrial supernatant, respectively and the lowest activity was associated with the mitochondrial pellet. Aurothioglucose (ATG; 0.1 μM/g BW) inhibited hepatic cell GSH-Px activity by more than 30% and TrxR activity by more than 80%, but glutathione reductase was not affected. The TrxR enzyme in the chicken might be different from the mammalian enzyme.
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