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Articles by F.S. Taha
Total Records ( 5 ) for F.S. Taha
  F.A.W. Singer , F.S. Taha , S.S. Mohamed , A. Gibriel and M. El- Nawawy
  This study aimed at obtaining a functional food ingredient in the form of a high mucilage product from hexane defatted isopropanol-detoxified flaxseed meal, hexane defatted-methanol detoxified flaxseed meal and isopropanol defatted flaxseed meal. The mucilage product was prepared by four methods namely: (1) The coprecipitate method, which gave a mucilage/protein product M1, (2) The modified coprecipitate method that resulted in mucilage/protein product M2, (3) The boiling water method that gave rise to mucilage/protein product M3 and (4) The enzymatic treatment method which led to obtain a mucilage/protein product M4. All mucilage/protein products were free of cyanogenic glycosides. Results indicated that M2 contained the highest content of soluble dietary fiber (mucilage) and little protein. Optimum conditions for the production of M2 include: the use of the modified coprecipitate method at a meal: water ratio of 1:40, a mucilage :ethanol ratio of 1:50 and a temperature of 5°C. The antioxidant activities of the four mucilage protein products were in the following order M2>M1>M3>M4. M2 was chosen for further study. Functional properties of M2 revealed poor wetting ability, poor gelling property, reasonable flowability, oil holding capacity, good emulsifying property, foam stability, excellent water absorption capacity. M2 was then incorporated into tap water at different concentrations to give a functional food product fiber water which was stored for three months. Microbiological examination of the stored fiber water revealed no growth of microorganisms. Sensory evaluation of stored samples indicated that color was not affected, also no significant difference of odor and consistency mean values were detected. On the other hand, the taste and overall acceptability mean values were significantly affected.
  F.S. Taha , G.F. Mohamed , S.H. Mohamed , S.S. Mohamed and M.M. Kamil
  Sunflower seed defatted meal (SM) is an underutilized source of protein due to the presence of chlorogenic acid (CGA) which imparts a greenish color to sunflower meal protein products. The aim of the present study was to prepare a (CGA) extract from SM and evaluate its biological activity. The study included extraction of phenolic compounds from SM, using 80% methanol, 80% ethanol and 80% acetone. The methods of extraction used included conventional extraction (CE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). Results proved that acetone achieved highest phenolic extraction, acetone-CE, acetone-MAE and acetone-UAE extracted 1802.76, 3668.81 and 3093.31 mg total phenolics/100 g meal. For safe nutritional reasons ethanol was chosen to continue the investigation. Ethanol concentrations 80, 70, 60, 50% were examined and results indicated 60% to be the most efficient. Using solvent mixtures with MAE-3 min and UAE-30 min proved effective. All phenolic extracts had a good antioxidant activity ranging between 86-95% as measured by free radical scavenging activity and between 74-93% as measured by the β-carotene bleaching method. Some of the above extracts were chosen for further investigation. The 60% ethanol-MAE-3 min and 60% ethanol-UAE-30 min extracts were effective for delaying oxidation of flaxseed oil. UV Spectroscopic analysis and HPLC analysis indicated that the chosen extracts contained between 687.22-1243.51 mg CGA/100 g as measured by UV-spectrophotometry and between 726.27-923.45 mg CGA/100 g as determined by HPLC. All chosen extracts showed potential as antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic agents. In conclusion the CGA extract was successfully prepared and proved to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties.
  Mona El- Hamidi , F.S. Taha , Safinaz M. El- Shami and Minar M.M. Hassanein
  Soybean oil (SBO) was miscella bleached in hexane using carbonized hulls of Jojoba (Jo), Jatrova (Ja), Peanuts (PN) and Pistachios (P) as alternatives to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude SBO with carbonized hulls was based on their delta-Free Fatty Acids (ΔFFA), reduction in Peroxide Value (PV), carotenoid content, color index and bleachability. Fuller’s Earth (FE) and Tonsil N (TN) were used for comparison with the carbonized hulls. Three oil: hexane ratios, 1: 0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 by volume and at Room Temperature (RT) and 50°C were used. It was found that oil hydrolysis during miscella bleaching and using seed hulls was very little in all treatments resulted in ΔFFA% between 2.65-3.12 at RT and 2.69-3.09 at 50°C compared to 3.29 ΔFFA% of crude SBO. The results proved that highest reduction in PV was achieved at 50°C and an oil to hexane ratio1:1.5 reaching 73.89 reduction percentage when using PN hulls. Also, Jo hulls resulted in more reduction in PV than FE under all conditions. Whereas Ja, PN and P gave more reduction percentage than TN in all cases. Concerning the effect, of using seed hulls in bleaching SBO, on carotenoid content the results showed that Jo and Ja gave the highest reduction in carotenoid content at oil to hexane ratio of 1:1 and at RT in comparison to the other hulls, TN and FE. Regression analysis indicate a polynomial correlation between the oil characteristics (ΔFFA%, reduction percentage in PV, carotenoid content and bleachability with the three oil: hexane ratios at the two temperatures, RT and 50°C, with r = 1. This study proved that miscella bleaching with carbonized hulls resulted in oils with less FFA, less PV and less carotenoids than the crude SBO. It also proved that it cannot act as a single bleaching agent by itself but it can be bleached with other clays.
  Suzanne M. Wagdy , F.S. Taha and Salma S. Omar
  Objective: The objectives of this study were to reduce the toxic compounds and polyphenolic compounds in jojoba meal by (1) One solvent with one concentration (100%) and different techniques, (2) Different solvents and different concentrations with the same technique and (3) Illustrate its effection on native and protein bands. Methodology: The jojoba press cake was defatted in a soxhelt apparatus, the dried defatted meal was extracted with different solvents and different techniques to reduce both phenolic and simmondsins content. Results: The results showed that maximum simmondsins and phenolic extractes were 14% and 18.5 mg g–1 meal, respectively. The best achieved condition to extract simmondsins was soxhlet extraction for 30 h whereas, in case of phenolic compounds, shaking for 15 min, then soaking for 72 h was the best condition. The examination of the dried residue by electrophoresis (native and SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that five major polypeptide bands (10, 15, 20, 38 and 48 kDa) were predominant with similar ratios in almost all used techniques, no reduction in protein bands with 100% solvent, whereas variations in solvent concentrations caused reduction in protein bands and the protein mobility increased with increasing the effect of microwave time. Conclusion: The protein analysis revealed that there is no relation between the simmondsins content and the protein quality.
  Suzanne M. Wagdy , F.S. Taha and Salma S. Omar
  Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) The possibility of turning waste products into valuable nutraceuticals, (2) Also substituting synthetic pharmaceuticals with neutraceuticals of advisable plant origin and (3) Adding new value with low cost to the main agro-industrial wastes. Methodology: The dried ground jojoba and jatropha hulls were extracted with different solvents at different concentrations. The dried pulverized hulls were first extracted in an ultrasonic water bath then soaked overnight, the extracts were tested for their content of phenolic compounds, flavonoid and triterpene saponins and the extracts were examined for antioxidant activity. For each extract three series of antioxidant activity methods were applied; 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity and total reducing-capability. Results: The water and ethanol (50-70%) concentrations is the best solvents to extracts phytochemical compounds with strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: A simple easy method to extract phenolic, flavonoid and saponin compounds from jojoba and jatrova hulls has been developed. The method uses less solvent and requires less energy. The process used results in a bioactive extract to be used in the pharmaceutical industry and leaves the remaining material after extraction suitable for other industries.
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