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Articles by F.P. Costa
Total Records ( 3 ) for F.P. Costa
  Y.N. Min , F.Z. Liu , Z. Wang , C. Coto , S. Cerrate , F.P. Costa , F. Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) combined with glycerin in broiler diets. In a 3x2 factorial arrangement, 600 one-day-old commercial strain Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% DDGS of known composition; within each level of DDGS the diets contained 0 or 5% glycerin, respectively, from 0-42 days of age. Diets were formulated to meet digestible amino acid requirements and were fed in pelleted form. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Body weight gain and feed consumption were measured and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 30% DDGS had no adverse effect on body weight of chicks; however birds fed diets with 30% DDGS had greater feed intake and poorer feed conversion than birds fed the control diet at most age periods. This was highly correlated to the reduced pellet quality of diets containing the high levels of DDGS. Birds fed diets with 30% DDGS also had significantly reduced dressing percentage compared to birds fed the control diet with no DDGS. However, there was no adverse effect on breast meat yield related to the higher levels of DDGS inclusion. Addition of 5% glycerin from biodiesel production to the diets had no significant effect on body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion. There was no significant effect of the addition of glycerin on dressing percentage or yield of various carcass parts. With one minor exception, there was no significant interaction between addition of glycerin and level of DDGS in the diet, even though pellet quality declined when glycerin was added to the diets. Overall, the results of this study demonstrates that 15% DDGS of known nutritional quality can be utilized in diets for growing broilers with no adverse effects provided diets are formulated on a digestible amino acid basis and meet the nutritional requirements of the broiler. Higher levels may be tolerated but there may be a loss in feed conversion unless pellet quality can be improved. A loss in dressing percentage at higher levels of DDGS has been consistently noted in this and previous studies. Incorporation of 5% glycerin from biodiesel production as a source of energy appears satisfactory.
  Z. Wang , S. Cerrate , C. Coto , F. Yan , F.P. Costa , A. Abdel-Maksoud and P.W. Waldroup
  A feeding trial was conducted in various levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were fed in broiler diets formulated to be either isocaloric using metabolizable energy levels similar to current U.S. poultry industry levels or formulated to contain optimum density commensurate with 1% supplemental poultry oil. In each diet type, levels of 0, 15 and 30% DDGS were incorporated. This resulted in six dietary treatments with four pens of 25 males per treatment. Diets were developed for starter (0-14 d), grower (15-28 days) and finisher periods (29-42 days) and were formulated to meet digestible amino acid specifications of a major poultry breeder, adjusted to the energy content of the diet. Bulk density and pellet quality of mixed feeds were determined. At the end of the study, five representative birds per pen were processed for dressing percentage and parts yield determination. Pellet quality decreased with increasing level of DDGS used. There was little difference in pellet quality between diets with 0 or 15% DDGS but quality deteriorated severely in diets with 30% DDGS. Diets formulated to optimum energy had better pellet quality due to lower supplemental poultry oil. Over the 42 days study, birds fed diets with 30% DDGS had significantly lower body weight and significantly higher feed conversion than did birds fed the control diet with no DDGS. Birds fed diets with 15% DDGS did not differ significantly in 42 days BW or feed conversion from birds fed the control diet with no DDGS nor with the birds fed diets with 30% DDGS. It appeared that a portion of the reduced performance associated with the higher level of DDGS might have been associated with the reduced pellet quality and the bulk density of the diet, rather than any nutritional deficiency. Therefore, approaches to feed manufacturing that enhance pellet quality may enhance usage of higher levels of DDGS in broiler diets.
  Cesar Coto , S. Cerate , Z. Wang , F. Yan , Y. Min , F.P. Costa and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the vitamin D level and source on the performance of broiler breeders and the deposition of this vitamin in egg yolk. Pullets reaching sexual maturity were depleted of vitamin D stores by feeding a vitamin D deficient diet during an eight week period. Following depletion, an experimental design was utilized consisting of a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with four levels of dietary cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH, supplied as HyD) (0 and 68 μg/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. Each experimental diet was fed to two pens with 10 hens and 2 roosters that each received the experimental diets. Levels of 25-OH in plasma and in egg yolk were measured right after the depletion period and during the experimental phase. Performance parameters such as body weight, hen-day production, egg-shell thickness and egg mass were measured weekly. After the depletion period the level of 25-OH in plasma and egg yolk was below the detection limit confirming the depletion status. During the experimental phase the amount of 25-OH in plasma and egg yolk was higher as the cholecalciferol increased. When HyD was fed the level of 25-OH in plasma and egg yolk was higher than obtained when cholecalciferol was fed. Increasing levels of cholecalciferol improved egg shell thickness, hen-day production and egg mass. The addition of HyD improved egg-shell thickness, hen-day production and egg mass. The effect of HyD on performance was more noticeable at low levels of cholecalciferol with no difference at higher levels of cholecalciferol in the diet.
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