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Articles by F.C. Muchadeyi
Total Records ( 4 ) for F.C. Muchadeyi
  Ngo Thi Kim Cuc , F.C. Muchadeyi , H. Eding , S. Weigend , C.B.A. Wollny and U. Baulain
  The objective of the study was to assess genetic diversity of H`mong chickens, a local breed in the mountainous areas of Northern Vietnam. Structured questionnaires were administered to fifty-five households from three villages (Phieng Cam (n = 30), Chieng Chan (n = 15) and Chieng Noi (n = 10). Morphological characters of 773 chickens were physically examined. Flock sizes averaged 14.44 ± 7.38 chickens per household. Seventy percent of the chickens had predominantly brown and multicoloured plumage. Yellow skin (94%) dominated over black skin colour. Ninety-five percent of the chickens had black legs. Ninety-six percent had black versus yellow beaks. Single comb prevailed with a frequency of 94%. Body weight of adult chickens averaged 1617g (± 52). Hens laid 12–13 eggs per clutch, with an average egg weight of 41 g. Hatching rate was more than 80%. The chickens were reared under a semi-scavenging production system in which 85% of the households provided chicken housing. All farmers supplemented their chickens with whole maize at most twice per day. A subset of thirty-six chickens from the three villages was genotyped at 29 microsatellite loci. A total of 186 alleles were observed. The mean number of alleles was 6.41 per locus. Heterozygosity varied from 62.7% to 66.8% for the three populations. All the village based populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were not affected by inbreeding. Pair wise FST indicated a significant (P< 0.05) differentiation between the Chieng Chan and the other two populations. The Nei`s, Reynold`s and Cavalli-Sforza distance measures showed Chieng Chang to be more distant from the two geographically close populations. There was no significant (P>0.05) genetic differences among the plumage colour based populations. The highest number of identical structure runs (10 out of 100) were observed at K = 2 in which Phieng Cam and Chieng Noi chicken clustered as one population while the Chieng Chan population had some individuals partly assigned to the Phieng Cam and Chieng Noi cluster.
  S. Ommeh , L.N. Jin , H. Eding , F.C. Muchadeyi , S. Sulandari , M.S.A. Zein , G. Danbaro , C.E. Wani , S.G. Zhao , Q.H. Nie , X.Q. Zhang , M. Ndila , R. Preisinger , G.H. Chen , I.A. Yousif , K.-N. Heo , S.J. Oh , M. Tapio , D. Masiga , O. Hanotte , H. Jianlin and S. Weigend
  An A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) at position 1,892 of the Mx gene coding sequence has been linked to susceptibility/resistance to avian viral infection in vitro. Using PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods, 1,946 samples from 109 populations from Asia, Africa and Europe; grouped as indigenous village, commercial, fancy chicken as well as wild junglefowl were genotyped for the polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated. Only the G allele was present in Ceylon junglefowl Gallus lafayetti. Using the wild red junglefowl G. gallus population as reference, we assessed if the A/G alleles and genotypes frequencies have been affected by the breeding history and the geographic dispersion of domestic chicken. Within group variation was high but overall there were no significant variation in distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies between the red junglefowl and indigenous village chickens (p>0.1946), with the exception of the East Asian group (p<0.0001). However, allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different between the red junglefowl and the commercial or fancy groups (p<0.0001). A small but significant negative correlation (r = - 0.166, p<0.0003) was observed between allelic and geographic distance matrices amongst indigenous village chicken populations. Human selection and genetic drift are likely the main factors having shaped today’s observed allele and genotype frequencies in commercial and fancy breeds. In indigenous village chicken and red junglefowl, we propose that both A and G alleles have been maintained by natural selection for disease resistance through a balancing selection mechanism.
  K.T. Ncube , P.J. Jooste , P. Soma , E.F. Dzomba and F.C. Muchadeyi
  The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a cluster of 19 genes spanning 92 kb on chromosome 16 and plays an important role in immune response. It is highly polymorphic and has been used to study adaptive genetic diversity in chickens. LEI0258 micro satellite marker that is on the BF region of the MHC and was used to investigate adaptive genetic diversity and population structures of village chickens from South Africa (n = 77), Zimbabwe (n = 60) and Malawi (n = 30). These village chickens are raised under scavenging production systems that are characterized by frequent exposure to diseases pathogens as well as fluctuations in feed supplies. The number of alleles, allele frequency and heterozygosity levels were used to measure diversity within populations whilst the Wright’s fixation indices were used to analyze the level of population sub-structuring. A total of 22 alleles ranging from 188-448 bp were observed. Number of alleles averaged 12 per population. Allele frequency ranged from 1.6-37.5% and HO averaged 0.5. Wright’s F statistics indicated high level of within population variability and absence of population sub-structuring amongst the South African, Malawian and Zimbabwean chickens. It was therefore concluded that LEI0258 is highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for Southern African village chicken populations.
  S.G. Zulu , F.C. Muchadeyi and E.F. Dzomba
  The term village chicken best describes the scavenging chickens because of the effect of the village socio-economic and biophysical environment on the production and health status of the chicken. These chickens are predominantly farmed in African villages by small holder farmers. The purpose of this study was to compare rates and levels of inbreeding in village (free range) chickens in Southern Africa. In addition the study sought to investigate the major economic traits that could be negatively affected by inbreeding. The study was carried out in 2007 and 2009 by sampling households in five agro-ecological zones (AEZ) in Zimbabwe and three farming regions in South Africa. Data was captured in the form of surveys conducted using pre-tested questionnaires and included farmer socio-demographic information and household chicken flock sizes and composition. Data was also captured on traits that chicken farmers target when selecting or culling the flocks by ranking traits in order of importance, one being most important and eight being the least important. Three parameters i.e. effective population size (Ne), rate of inbreeding (ΔF) and the level of inbreeding (F) were estimated using different mathematical formulas. Statistical analysis of the effect of agro-ecological zone and country on each of the three parameters was done using Generalized Linear Models procedure in SAS. Results showed that Limpopo province of South Africa and AEZ III of Zimbabwe had highest and lowest Ne, respectively. Consequently, Limpopo and AEZ III had the lowest and the highest ΔF respectively. Both effective population size and rate of inbreeding varied significantly (p<0.05) between farming regions/agro ecological zones within countries. It was observed that chicken body size, reproductive performance, mothering ability and health were ranked high while body conformation and morphological traits (plumage color and comb shape) were ranked the least important traits for choosing animals for breeding and for culling chickens from the flock.
 
 
 
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