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Articles by F.C. Iheukwumere
Total Records ( 9 ) for F.C. Iheukwumere
  F.C. Iheukwumere , A.H. Abu and I.C. Okoli
  The effect of the administration of varying doses of FSH+LH (Pergonal®, Ferring Labs, USA) was used on 16 clinically, sound, parous, West African dwarf does aged 2-3 years to evaluate the hormonal profiles and superovulatory responses. Four treatment groups were employed consisting of T1 (administered with physiological saline as the control), T2, T3 and T4 given 19.0 IU, 58.0 IU and 82.0 IU FSH+LH, respectively, as intramuscular injections over 3 days. The results on the number of corpora lutea found on the ovary did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (5.25±2.74) T3 (6.25±2.13) and T4 (6.50±2.74). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (3.75±0.30) in the number of corpora lutea on the ovary. The number of embryos recovered was not significantly different (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (4.50±0.93), T3 (4.70±0.86) and T4 (4.75±1.27). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (2.25±0.01) in number of embryos recovered. Goats treated on T2 with embryo recovery rate (78.30±0.18%) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from goats on T3 (75.20±0.14%) and T4 (73.10±0.06%). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (60.00±0.02%). The ova/embryo wastage was not significantly different (p>0.05) between goats on T2 (21.70±0.30%), T3 (27.80±0.12%) and T4 (26.90±0.16%). However, they differed significantly (p<0.05) from goats on T1 (40.00±0.01%) in embryo wastage. LH and FSH were highest at T3 treatment group with values of (3.60±0.02 and 3.13±0.14 (IU L-1), respectively. Progesterone and Oestradiol showed higher values on T4 goats with (16.17±1.01 and 0.26±0.41 nmmol L-1), respectively. The results of this study indicate that the administration of FSH+LH enhanced embryo production and hormonal levels in West African dwarf goats.
  E.C. Ndubuisi , F.C. Iheukwumere and P.E. Etusim
  Five hundred and forty Lohmann hybrid point of lay birds aged 22 weeks were used to study the effect of periodic litter change on egg production and physical qualities. The birds were divided into 3 treatment groups consisting of 180 birds. Each treatment group was further replicated 3 times, made of 60 birds per replicate. Each treatment was allotted to three treatment periods of egg collection identified as T1 (morning 0700-1100 hrs). T2 (afternoon 1100-1400000 hrs) and T3 (evening 1400-1700 hrs) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The birds were provided with water and feed ad-libitum. Litter was changed every 12 weeks and the experiment lasted for forty-eight weeks. The results of the climatic environmental conditions of the experimental site i.e. the ambient temperature, rectal temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity showed non significant difference (p>0.05) between T1 morning and T3 evening values but they differed significantly (p>0.05) from T2 afternoon values. The hen day egg production (61.15±0.87), hen housed egg production (59.04±0.91) and laying house mortality (4.69±0.43) for T1 morning were similar (p>0.05) to T3 evening hen day egg production (64.76±0.95), hen house egg production (61.41±0.73) and laying house mortality (3.91±0.42). Feed consumption, feed conversion and weight of the birds did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) between the treatment groups. The albumen weight, Haugh unit, egg length and width followed the same pattern as in the hen day egg production. The egg weight, yolk weight, shell weight and thickness in T1 morning, T2 afternoon and T3 evening did not differ (p>0.05) significantly between treatment groups. The pees-wees, cracked eggs and small-sized eggs were similar (p>0.05) in T1 morning and T3 evening period but significantly lower (p<0.05) than T2 afternoon values. The large sized and extra large eggs were similar in T1 and T3 but significantly (p<0.05) higher than T2 values. The results of this study show that litter change in a deep-litter system should be in the morning or evening must have finished egg laying for the day and when the ambient temperature must have fallen and is within the thermoneutrality zone between 12.8°C and 26°C.
  G.A. Anyanwu , F.C. Iheukwumere and C.O. Emerole
  A 28-day feeding trial involving ninety-six (96) four weeks old broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of total replacement of maize with different combination ratios of maize grit and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG) on the performance, carcass characteristics and economy of finisher broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated by substituting maize with maize grit and BDG in the ratio of T1 (0%); T2 (3:1-45 + 15); T3 (1:1-30 + 30) and T4 (1:3-15 + 45) respectively. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Each experimental unit of 24 birds was replicated twice giving 12 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Body weight and weight gain per feed intake through higher at high cost with the control diet improved in cheaper diets formulated with maize grit and BDG. There was no consistency in the carcass characteristics of the groups particularly among the internal organs showing that dietary maize grit ad BDG could not pose any discernible nutritional problems that might manifest in the carcass of the broilers. Cheaper feed formulated with maize grit and BDG gave the higher gross margins especially diet 4.
  F.C. Iheukwumere , E.C. Ndubuisi , E.A. Mazi and M.U. Onyekwere
  A 25-day feeding trial involving 120, 5-week old Anak broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate, growth, blood chemistry and carcass yield of broilers fed cassava leaf meal at dietary levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% respectively. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and the control (0%) leaf meal were superior (p<0.05) to the group on 10% and 15% leaf meal. The total serum protein albumin and haemoglobin at 0% and 5% leaf meal were superior to the values on 10% and 15% leaf meal; however, cholesterol, creatinine and urea showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatment group. The cut parts of the carcass showed superior values (p<0.05) in the control treatment and they differed significantly (p<0.05) from broilers on 5, 10 and 15% leaf meal in carcass yield. It is suggested that 5% inclusion of cassava leaf meal could be used in broiler finisher without any deleterious effect on growth, blood chemistry and carcass yield of broilers.
  Audifax N. Iwu , C.S. Ebere , I.P. Ogbuewu , I.F. Etuk , M.N. Opara , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , F.C. Iheukwumere and U. Herbert
  Forty eight crossbred male and female rabbits aged 12-14 weeks were used to study the effects of supplementing Coconut Shell Ash (CSA) on reproductive organ characteristics and serum sex hormone concentrations of growing rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 24 males and females, respectively. Each group was divided into four experimental treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 of six animals and was further replicated three times with two animals per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The animals were fed a commercial grower rabbit ration which was supplemented with CSA at the rate of 0, 1, 2 and 3 g kg-1 b.wt., respectively. At the end of 12 weeks feeding, three rabbits were selected from each group, slaughtered and used to determine reproductive organ characteristics. Blood samples from the slaughtered animals were collected from the jugular vein and assayed for serum reproductive hormones concentrations. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Testicular morphometry result showed that 1 to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation could improve the weight of testis, size and epididymal weights indicating that up to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation supported superior testicular development. This was associated with increasing serum testosterone concentration indicating probably a CSA enhancement of metabolic activity. One gram kg-1 b.wt. was the optimal CSA supplementation rate in female rabbits, since this led to improved weight of whole reproductive tract, weight of ovary, oviduct and uterus. This was equally associated with increased estrogen concentration, which increased with increasing CSA supplementation.
  F.C. Iheukwumere , E.C. Ndubuisi , E.A. Mazi and M.U. Onyekwere
  A 35-day feeding trial involving 120, 5-week old Anak broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilization and organ characteristics of broilers fed cassava leaf meal at dietary levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% respectively. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and organ weight of birds on the control (0%) and (5%) leaf meals were significantly superior (p<0.05) to the group on 10% and 15% leaf meal. The utilization of Dry Matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract and ash was significantly poorer at the 10 and 15% dietary levels. The organ weights (heart, liver, gizzard) were superior at 0 and 5% (p<0.05) groups to the groups on 10 and 15% inclusion levels of the leaf meal. It is suggested that 5% inclusion of cassava leaf meal could be used in broiler finisher diets without any deleterious effects.
  F.C. Iheukwumere , M.U. Onyekwere and U.E. Egu
  Thirty-six (36) 24 weeks old rabbit bucks were randomly assigned to three treatment diets. The treatments T1 T2 and T3 which contained T1 0% control. T2 20% raw pigeon pea seed meal and T3 20% boiled pigeon seed meal and fed to the rabbits in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The mean body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between rabbits on the control T1 0% and T3 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal, but, however, they differed significantly (p < 0.05) from rabbits on 20% raw seed meal. The dressed weight and dressed percentage did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the control and 20% boiled seed meal, however, they differed significantly p < from rabbits on the T2 treatment diets (raw seed meal). Carcass length were similar between the treatment groups. The cut part and organ weights did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between treatment groups, however, higher values were observed in rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The testis characteristics (testis weight, tunica albuginea weight, testis length width and volume did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) between treatment groups, however, higher values were observed in rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. It is concluded that 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported the carcass and testicular characteristics of rabbit bucks.
  F.C. Iheukwumere , E.C. Ndubisi and P.E. Etusiim
  Eighteen clinically sound and parous sows and 6 boars of Large White x Landrace crosses were used to study the effects of different sources of protein on the growth and reproduction. The treatments T1, T2 and T3 which contained T1 Fish meal (FM) control, T2 Chicken offal meal (COM) and T3 Full-fat soybean (FFSB) and fed to the pigs in a completely randomized block design (CRD). The mean body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between treatment groups. However, higher numerical values were obtained for COM and FFSB treatment diets. The gestation length ranged from 114-116 days. The number of piglets born were similar (P > 0.05) between the treatment groups, but COM and FFSB treatment groups showed higher values. The piglet birth weight gain were similar (P > 0.05) between COM and FFSB treatment groups, however, they differed significantly (P < 0.05) from T1 FM control. The piglets weight gain at 0-2, 0-4 weeks of age were similar (P > 0.05) between treatment groups. However, piglets weight gain at 4-8 weeks of age were similar between COM and FFSB treatment groups but differed significantly (P < 0.05) from T1 FM group. The number of piglets weaned and weaning weights were similar (P > 0.05) between treatment groups, however, higher values were observed in COM and FFSB treatment groups. It is concluded that COM and FFSB can completely replace fish meal in the rations of pregnant pigs without any deleterious effects on growth and reproduction.
  F.C. Iheukwumere
  Twenty-four clinically sexually mature New Zealand white rabbits consisting of (4 buck and 20 does) were used to study the effect of concentrate and Talinum triangulare combinations by breeding does during pregnancy on litter performance traits. The treatments comprised the following concentrate and Talinum triangulare combinations (%) respectively: (1) 20:80, (2) 40:60, (3) 60:40, (4) 80.20.. A total of 150 g/day was offered to the does during pregnancy. Average litter sizes at birth and weaning and litter weaning weight were similar (P > 0.05) between 40:60 and 60:40 concentrate and forage combinations, but, they differed significantly (P < 0.05) from 20:80 and 80:20 concentrate and forage combinations. However, 20:80 diets differed significantly (P < 0.05) from 80:20 diet combinations. Average litter weight gains (0-35 days) for the various concentrate and forage levels were 2054.40 ± 14.25 g (20:80), 2270.74 ± 18.85 g (40:60), 2314.40 ± 24.64 g (60:40) and 1485.24 ± 19.30 g (80:20). Mortalities were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between diets. From the economic stand point therefore, diet with 60:40 concentrate and forage combinations could be considered optimum, based on result on litter sizes, litter weight at weaning and mortality.
 
 
 
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