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Articles by F.C. Oad
Total Records ( 60 ) for F.C. Oad
  F.C. Oad , M. A. Samo , S. M. Qayyum , N.L. Oad and G. S. Solangi
  The field experiment was conducted to assess the pre-emergence herbicide application on the growth and yield of cotton. Treatments for weed control were herbicides including, Dual Gold 960 EC 2000 ml ha‾1, Dual Gold 960 EC 2500 ml ha‾1, Stomp 330 EC 1.25 Lit ha‾1, Stomp 330 EC 1.50 Lit ha‾1, Stomp 455 C. S 0.66 Lit ha‾1, Stomp 455 C.S 1.00 Lit ha‾1 and control (untreated). Three weed species i.e., broad leaved (locally called Waho, and Naro), grasses (locally called (Sawri, Chabber, Mandhano) and sedges (locally called Kabah) were found in the cotton field. Weed density reduced by 174 percent over untreated control significantly with the application of Stomp 455 C.S 0.66 Lit ha‾1 as pre-emergence weed control. The greater reduction of weed species resulted taller plants, more fruiting branches, seed cotton weight, and ginning out-turn percentage. Therefore it is concluded that Stomp 455 C.S 0.66 Lit ha‾1 is an effective pre-emergence weed control treatment for achieving maximum cotton yield and ginning out-turn.
  M.R. Wagan , F.C. Oad and K.S. Nenwani
  The research was conducted to evaluate the best source and schedule of nitrogenous fertilizer for qualitative and quantitative characters of wheat crop at Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Various nitrogenous fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate) applied in two and three splits with basal dose of P and K to Sarsabz wheat variety. Nitrogen applied in three split doses significantly increased grain and straw yields, protein and nitrogen content of the wheat crop as compared to two split applications. Among the sources of nitrogen, the urea was ranked at first place as compared to ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate fertilizers for recording satisfactory quantitative (grain and straw yields), qualitative characters (nitrogen and protein content in grain and straw) and it had also soil residual effect for N content in the soil. However, the soil residual K and P both were higher in ammonium sulphate. Therefore, it is recommended that urea is the best source of nitrogen and it should be applied in three split doses during various crop growth stages for obtaining satisfactory wheat straw and grain yields protein and nitrogen content.
  A.A. Lakho , F.C. Oad , H.A. Samo and S.H. Ghaloo
  The field study was conducted at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandpjam, Pakistan for economic analysis of wheat under different nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1) and placements (broadcast, banding, pop-up and foliar).The study revealed that 120 kg N ha-1 applied through banding produced highest physical productivity in terms of grain yield (5400.65 kg ha-1), better revenue productivity (Rs. 41855.03), maximum increase in grain yield (1786.53 Kg ha-1, value = Rs. 13845.60 ha-1) due to banding of 120 kg N ha-1 satisfactory net returns (Rs. 21539.03 ha-1) and cost benefit ratio (1:2.96). It was concluded that the economic performance of 120 kg N ha-1 was better as compared to other nitrogen levels and placements and it is recommended as farmer guidelines for nitrogen management.
  M.M. Rahman , A. Naqi Shah and F.C. Oad
  The field experiment was conducted to compare the banding method of fertilizer application with the broadcast at Vegetable Research Station, SHRI Mirpurkhas, Pakistan. The recommended 250-125-125 NPK kg ha-1 were applied in the form of Urea, DAP and SOP. The application of NPK through banding showed better results for more number of plants and stems. The maximum soil coverage percentage, tuber number and weight of marketable tubers increased significantly than broadcast fertilizer method of application.
  S.K. Agha , F.C. Oad and U.A. Buriro
  The field research was conducted at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to assess the suitable nitrogen level for inoculated and un-inoculated soybean. The treatments 0, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1 were applied to the inoculated and un-inoculated soybean. The results of the experiment exhibited more pods per plant, maximum seeds per pod, heavier seed weight, seed index, highest nodule number and outstanding seed yield performances were observed in the plots treated with 50 kg N ha-1+inoculum (R.japonicum), followed by 75 kg N ha-1+inoculum. However, yield and yield components showed less response in the un-inoculated plots receiving no fertilizer application. The results further revealed that as the fertilizer levels increased or decreased from 50 kg N ha-1 in the inoculated plots all the observed plant characters significantly decreased. Thus, 50 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation are recommended for achieving maximum seed yield and its contributing components.
  U.A. Burio , F.C. Oad and S.K. Agha
  The field experiment was conducted at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam to observe the correlation coefficient values of growth and yield traits of Kiran-95 wheat variety under different nitrogen levels and placements. Three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) were incorporated through broadcast, band application, pop-up and foliar application. It was observed that a unit increase in wheat grain yield was positively associated with plant height (r = 0.431), productive tillers (r = 0.419), spike length (r = 0.757), grains spike-1 (r = 0.860), seed index (r = 0.878) and harvesting index (r = 0.949). However, the grain yield showed non-significant and negative association with flowering days (r = -0.146) and maturity days (r = -0.054). It was concluded that correlation coefficient values should be determined for observing the degree of relationship of plant traits with yield to ensure that these parameters significantly contribute or not and positive contributing traits must be treated under intensive care to achieve yield targets.
  R.G. Kakar , M.Yasinzai , A.U. Salarzai , F.C. Oad and M.H. Siddiqui
  Study was conducted to examine quality, distribution of nutrients and heavy metals in sewage water used for irrigation in and around of Quetta city, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from three main sewage drains (Habib nala, Ispini and Sabzal Road). Collected water samples were analyzed for EC, SAR, RSC, Cl-, SO4++, Ca++ + Mg++, Na+, K+, P, Fe++, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni. Results revealed that the EC was 9.96 ds m-1 for Ispini road drain. and overall range of SAR were 33.50 Habib nala, 19.16 Subzal road and 18.21 for Ispini road. The pH of sewage water varied from 7.24 to 9.21. The concentration of essential nutrients (macro+ micro) and toxic metals varied greatly in samples between locations. The concentration of P and K+ was high (1.18 ppm and 0.81 me L-1) in Habib nala than Ispini and Subzal road sewage drain. The concentration of micro nutrients (Fe++, Mn, Zn, Cu) were with permissible limits. With respect to toxic metals, Pb was generally greater (0.12ppm) in Ispini road drain compared with (0.05-0.08 ppm) in other sewage drains. The minimum and maximum Ni (0.09 and 0.18 ppm) was found in Ispini and Subzal road drain.
  G.L. Oad , F.C. Oad , A.A. Bhand and M.H. Siddiqui
  The field study was conducted at Rice Research Institute, Dokri, Larkana, Pakistan to assess the potential deep water rice cultivar. Five cultivars: Kanwal-95, IR-8, DR-82, IR-6 and DR-58 were screened. Kanwal-95 exhibited prolonged flowering and maturity days by recording elongated plants, more tillers and grain yield followed by IR-8 and IR-6 rice cultivars. The rest of cultivars were almost non-significant in growth and yield parameters. The study recommends Kanwal-95 as potential deep water rice cultivar in terms of elongation and grain yield.
  G.L. Oad , F.C. Oad , A.A. Bhand and M.H. Siddiqui
  The experiment was conducted at Rice research Institute, Dorki, Larkana, Pakistan to evaluate the growth and yield performance of various aromatic strains. The various varieties and crosses were Lateefy, Jajai-77, D. Basmati x Lateefy, IR-8 x Jajai-77 and Bas.-370 x Jajai-77. It was observed that aromatic varieties and their crosses initiated flowering between 73 and 105 days. Among the tested strains, Lateefy, Bas.-370 x Jajai and IR-8 x Jajai-77 recorded minimum (73-77) days to flowering, followed by D. Basmati x Lateefy which took 80 days to flowering. The aromatic rice variety Jajai-77 recorded prolonged (105) flowering days. Maturity days and plant height of the strains also followed the similar pattern, where Jajai-77 showed prolonged maturity days and attained taller plants and recognized as taller or semi dwarf as compared to other rest of varieties and crosses. The grain yields of Lateefy followed by IR-8 x Jajai-77 and D. Basmati x Lateefy were significantly higher than rest of cultivars and crosses. It was concluded that Lateefy aromatic rice had better adoptability in the region by producing satisfactory grain yield.
  M.H. Siddiqui and F.C. Oad
  The field research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate nitrogen levels for growth, seed yield and relationship of plant characters of safflower at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. Nitrogen levels tested were; 0, 30, 60, 80, 120, 150 and 180 kg ha-1. The experiment was conducted in three-replicated Randomized Complete Block Design.The results revealed that all the crop parameters were affected significantly due to different levels of nitrogen. The performance of safflower (cv. Pawari-95) was significantly promising under nitrogen level of 120 kg ha-1 which produced significantly (p<0.01) greater branches (7.33), heavy seed index (38.66 g) and better seed yield (-694.66 kg ha-1) whereas, prolonged maturity days (172), tall plants (165.66 cm), more capsules (45.33) were recorded in the plots treated with 180 kg N ha-1. All the crop parameters were also positively associated w ith the seed yield. Thus, 120 kg N ha-1 was considered as the optimum level for getting maximum seed yield of safflower, further increase in N levels remained uneconomical by producing adverse effects on all crop parameters. It is recommended that safflower crop may be fertilized at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 where satisfactory seed yield could be achieved.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and G.H. Jamro
  The field experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to observe the emergence of maize and nitrogen use efficiency of the crop under different fertility regimes (0-0, 90-00, 90-60, 90-90, 90-120, 150-00, 150-60, 150-90 and 150-120 NP kg ha-1) applied in the plots plowed through tillage practices with cultivator, chisel and desi plows. The better emergence was obtained with 90-90 NP kg ha-1. The seedling emergence decreased at higher doses of N and P. The interaction of tillage x fertilizer revealed that fertilizer at the rate of 90-150 kg ha-1 and tillage practices with cultivator exhibited higher seedling emergence, while the plots ploughed with chisel plow and desi plow recorded decreased emergence. However, chisel plowing recorded higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency than the plots ploughed by cultivator or desi plough. Nitrogen use efficiency at high levels of nitrogen applications was low than in the low rates of N incorporation. It was concluded that tillage practices should be performed with cultivator and 90 kg N ha-1 is suitable combination for seedling emergence and crop yield of maize.
  M.H. Siddiqui , A.A. Lakho and F.C. Oad
  The field study was conducted to assess the economic value of inoculated (Rhizobium japonicum) and un-inoculated soybean under different nitrogen levels (0, 50, 75 kg ha-1) at Rawalakot Experiment Farm, Azad Kashmir. The partial economic analysis showed the superiority of the field having inoculum + 50 kg N ha-1, where the physical productivity (1522.34 kg ha-1), revenue productivity (Rs. 13320.47 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 3220.47 ha-1) and cost-benefit ratio (1:1.31) were higher as compared to other treatments. Thus, it is recommended that bio fertilizer should be inoculated which fix atmospheric nitrogen in the root nodules with the in-organic nitrogen at the level of 50 kg ha-1 where maximum output could be achieved.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and U.A. Buriro
  The field experiment was conducted at Agro climatic conditions of Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir for evaluation of various canola genotypes for seed and oil potentials. The ten canola entries: Canola-1, Canola-2, Shiralle, Oscar, Dunkled, Rainbow, PR-1002, PR-1005, PR-1003 and PR-1007 were sown in rain fed conditions. The result showed the superiority of Rainbow variety for recording the higher seed and oil yields and was recommended for achieving satisfactory yield.
  A.Naqi Shah , M.M. Rehman and F.C. Oad
  The field experiment was conducted at Student Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan Three varieties (Early Raya, P-53/48-2 and S-9) and six NP combinations (Control, 50-15, 75-30, 100-45, 125-60 and 150-75 Kg NP ha-1) were applied to observe their effect on mustard seed yield and oil content. The results revealed highly significant differences for yield and oil content of varieties, NP levels and their interactions. NP fertilizer at the rate of 150-75 Kg ha-1 significantly increased all the crop traits. Among the varieties, S-9 produced higher seed yield whereas, oil content was higher in Early Raya.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and L. Kumar
  The field experiments were conducted in the farmer’s field at Dudu Chack, Shakar Garh, Narowal, Pakistan to assess the effect and relationship of varying seedling heights (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.0 cm) on tobacco variety Tandojam-1 for growth and yield potentials. The plant height, leaf size, green and cured leaves yields, the nitrogen, nicotinic, chloride, potash and reducing sugars of the leaves were found maximum when seedling height increased linearly from 2.5 to 12.0 cm. The relationship of seedling height was significant and positive with all the growth and chemical parameters. It may be argued that better chemical composition and growth of the cured tobacco leaves may be obtained by transplanting the seedlings at the height of 10.0 to 12.0 cm.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad and A. Naqi Shah
  The field experiment was conducted to study the effect of sowing dates on total biomass content of cotton genotypes on clay soil under agro-climatic condition of Tandojam Pakistan during 2002. The treatments were three sowings (15th April, 15th May and 15th June) and three cotton genotypes (Qalandri, DS-67-3A and NIAB-78). The results revealed maximum biomass distribution at maturity in the leaves, stem and fruits of Qalandri and DS-67-3A, respectively whereas, the minimum biomass was noted in the NIAB cotton variety. Among the tested sowing dates, 15th May and 15th April planting exhibited significantly higher biomass accumulation as compared to late (15th June) sowings. Thus, it was recommended that cotton crop should be sown during 15th April to 15th May for obtaining satisfactory boll production in agro climatic conditions of Tandojam, Pakistan.
  F.C. Oad , M.H. Siddiqui and U.A. Buriro
  The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic and economic interference between cotton and pigeon pea at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. The intercropping pigeon pea with cotton showed adverse effects on all the growth and yield contributing parameters of cotton. In pigeon pea, the taller plants (300 cm), greater number of branches (12.33 plant-1), remarkably higher pods (223.66 plant-1), heavy seed index (103.33 g) and maximum seed yield (2182.33 kg ha-1) were observed in sole cropping system. In cotton, maximum plant height (164.00 cm), more production of bolls plant-1 (26.33), higher number of branches plant-1 (37.33), greater bolls plant-1 (16.66) and satisfactory seed cotton yield (2271 kg ha-1) were recorded when cotton was sown as sole crop. The agronomic parameters ob both intercrops decreased as compared to sole crops. The economic analysis indicated that cotton sole crop on an average recorded cost of production Rs. 31098 ha-1 against Rs. 26000 ha-1 intercropping of cotton with pigeon pea. The physical productivity study includes the total seed cotton yield of cotton as a sole crop and the total yield of cotton from intercropping with pigeon pea. The cotton sole crop yielded 2271.00 kg ha-1 and cotton intercropping with pigeon pea yielded 1120.00 kg ha-1. According to average per hectare revenue, productivity of cotton sole Rs. 56775.00 and intercropping cotton with pigeon pea Rs. 28000 ha-1. The cotton sole crop on average recorded net returns at the rate of Rs.25677 ha-1 whereas, cotton with pigeon pea intercropping exhibited the net returns at the rate of Rs. 2000 ha-1, which was very low due to adverse affect of pigeon pea intercropping with cotton. In this study input output ratio were determined to examine economic efficiency of both cotton sole and cotton intercropping with pigeon pea. The results derived from the above analysis reveal that growing cotton sole crop earned input output ratios at the proportion of 1:87 whereas, cotton intercropping with pigeon pea had input output ratio at the proportion 1:07. It was concluded that cotton-pigeon pea intercropping has adverse effects on each other, therefore the crops should be sown as sole crops.
  M.H. Siddiqui , F.C. Oad , A.M. Kumbhar and U.A. Buriro
  An experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to assess the NP requirement (0-0, 50-25, 75-37.5 and 100-50 NP kg ha-1) for soybean varieties (Bossier and Pelican). The highly significant differences for varieties and fertilizer combinations for plant height, index and seed yield per hectare were observed. Whereas, non-significant differences were recorded under number of pods per plant. The variety Pelican under 100-50 kg NP ha-1 produced taller plants (66. 25 cm) and more number of pods (55.00 plant-1). However, the seed index (14.00 g) and seed yield (3007 kg ha-1) were superior in variety Bossier with the application of 75-37.5 kg NP ha-1.
  F.C. Oad , A.A. Lakho , A. Soomro , N.L. Oad , G.Q. Chandio and Z.A. Abro
  The field experiment was conducted for partial economic analysis to assess actual and potential seed cotton yields and water savings under 7, 14 and 21 days irrigation intervals. The satisfactory cotton yields appeared at 14-day irrigation interval. Thus, it is recommended that cotton crop should be irrigated with adequate application of water at the interval of 14 days which produces maximum yield and water saving. This saved water could be utilized for cultivating additional area or may be diverted to irrigate the land where scarcity and shortage of the water appears.
  F.C. Oad , A. A. Lakho and Pompe Sta. Cruz
  Lock-lodged ratoon added grain yield of 3320 kg-ha (p 15770.00) under low costs of added inputs (p 6963.40) with contributed benefits of p 68570.00 within a short period of 60 days. Lock-lodged ratoon separately generated a high worth of p 146.78-ha.-day compared to wet Season Rice(p 98.13) and Dry Season Rice ( 94.53). Economic contribution of lock lodged ratoon crop with cropping sequences gave a net income of p 31539.68 (p 86.41-ha.-day) in the cropping sequences of Wet Season Rice-Lock-Lodged Ratoon- Dray Season Rice. Lock-lodged ratoon may contribute additional benefit of p 15770.00-ha with added cost of p 6963.40-ha compared to lands left fallow after wet Season Rice.
  Z.D. Mirani , M.A. Narejo , M.I. Kumbhar and F.C. Oad
  Rice is one of the important cash crop of Pakistan. To improve rice production, farmers must be aware of recommended practices. Different sources of information are used for dissemination of information and it was assumed that farmer would be able to understand new technology for rice production and will employ this technology at their fields. Therefore, this study sought to describe farmers level of knowledge regarding the recommended technology for rice production and to assess the effectiveness of the sources of information. The study used a sample survey method and identifies through a simple random sampling technique 150 rice growers of Larkana district of Sindh province of Pakistan. The study found that more than 70% rice growers were following recommended technology which was considered under the moderate level. Radio and Agriculture Extension were found significant sources in helping farmers to adopt new technology. Farmers were of the opinion that the government should held conferences for farmers which is helpful in understanding new and improved technological advancement in the field of agriculture. The majority of the respondents perceived that agricultural extension agents should pay visit to their farm/field on a regular basis.
  A.N. Mirani , L.A. Jamali , F.C. Oad , M.A. Samo , A.A. Lakho and N.L. Oad
  Four water courses recorded the loss of water before improvement as 25.58, 13.82, 36.46 and 39.84%, however after improvement these losses exhibited reduced values i.e. 1.61, 1.36, 1.63, and 1.36, and conveyance efficiency improved by 37.85%. Therefore it is recommended that to obtain maximum conveyance efficiency and reduced water loss risks the lining of water courses should be on top priority.
  S. Bughio , M.H. Baloch , F.C. Oad , A.A. Moryani , A.H. Mirani and M.A. Brohi
  The study was conducted on randomly selected 30 Kamori goats for five Kiddings from the flock of livestock experimental Khudaabad. Males of Kamori goats were heavier as compared to females. The mean birth weight of male and female kid recorded was 3.12 ± 0.36 kg and 2.83 ±0.40 kg respectively, whereas, mean weaning weight of male kid was 15.81±0.65 kg and female kid was 14.15 ±0.66 kg. The birth weight and weaning weight both were higher in 5th kidding, where animal had maximum body size and weight. The same trends for adult weight was exhibited i.e. males being heavier (70.16 ± 8.149 kg) than females (47.80 ±4.452 kg). The average milk yield attained by Kamori goat was 1.98 ±0.47 liters per day, milk production was higher in 5th lactation.
  F.C. Oad , D.L. Oad , A. Soomro , M.A. Samo , N.L. Oad and Z.A. Abro
  The field experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of 50 and 100% Gypsum Requirement (GR), molasses 35 t. ha-1 and 20 t. ha-1, Farm Yard Manure 50 t. ha-1 and 30 t. ha-1, continuos flooding and drying to ameliorate saline-sodic soils. All the treatments were replicated three times in the Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial pre project soil chemical analysis assessed the area saline-sodic in nature. Salt crust scrapping, deep plowing leveling and water management practices were given prime emphasis in amelioration process. There was significant reduction of pH, ECe, SAR and ESP under each treatment, but, 100% GR followed by 50% GR recorded maximum reduction of pH, ECe, SAR and ESP values respectively. As the sampling depth increased the reduction in the soil chemical values also decreased. Among the soil depths, upper most sampling depth (0-15 cm) was found rapid towards ameliorative process. The relevant field practices were also found effective where continues flooding was ranked first in reduction of pH, ECe, SAR and ESP. the amendments showed maximum efficiency in the soil where upper crust of salts was scraped and drainage system of field was maintained.
  F.C. Oad and Pompe Sta. Cruz
  Increased levels of nitrogen fertilizer showed positive response to {PSBRcB rice variety in Locklodged ratoon (LLR) by increasing tillers, productive, panicle and seed length, and 1000 grain weight. However, in conventional ratooning (CR) nitrogen fertilizer poorly contributed to number of filled spikelets, total tillers, productive tillers. The grain yield was maximum at the fertilizer level of 60 kg-ha applied to LLR. The shortest panicles were recorded in unfertilized plots.
  M.U. Usmani Khail , A. Hameed Ansari , Lubna S. Rajput , F.C. Oad , N.L. Oad and G.N. Sohu
  Field trial on the effect of agronomic practices (sowing dates, sowing methods and harvesting frequencies) on fresh forage and seed yield of berseem was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Results indicated that plant height, number of branches, fresh forage and seed yield were affected significantly by all the treatments as well as their interactions. Delay in sowing at 15 days interval from 1st November to 1st December depressed the fresh forage and seed yield, but seed yield was comparatively better in medium sowing, ( 15th Nov.) Seed broadcasted resulted in higher fresh forage and seed yield as compared to line sowing. Crop left after one cutting, progressively increased seed yield, but reduced the fresh forage yield, it was higher at 2nd cutting. It is suggested that for obtaining better fresh forage and seed yield, the seed should be broadcasted on 1st November to 15th November. The crop should be left for seed yield after one cutting. For fresh forage yield, number of cuttings may be increased.
  Nasir R. Khan , A. Hameed Ansari , Lubna S. Rajput , U. Usmani Khail , F.C. Oad and G.N. Sohu
  Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significantly maximum marketable bulb yield over other treatments. Onion planted on ridges gave significantly better yield over flat planting. It was suggested that for obtaining maximum marketable bulb yield of onion variety, phulkara, the crop may be planted on ridges and fertilized with N, P and K fertilizers.
  F.C. Oad , S.M. Qayyum , N.L. Oad , A.W. Gandahi , G.N. Sohu and G.Q. Chandio
  The field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of different fertilizer doses (0-0-0, 30-20-10, 60-40-20, 90-60-30, and 120-80-40 NPK Kg-ha on growth, yield and oil content of Toria Selection (Brassica compastrist L.) brassica variety at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri, Pakistan. Application of 120-80-40 and 90-60-30 NPK Kg-ha fertilizer doses equally showed efficiency of producing taller plants, more branches, increased number of siliqua, lengthy siliqua, bold seeds in siliqua, and heavier seed index, which in-turn increased seed yield and oil content of the crop. Thus, it is recommended that Toria Selection brassica variety should be fertilized with 90-60-30 or 120-80-40 NPK Kg-ha for maximum yield and oil content.
  Lubna S. Rajput , A. Hameed Ansari , M.U. Usmani Khail , F.C. Oad and N.L. Oad
  Field trials were performed during summer, 1990, 1991 and 1993 at agronomy experimental field, Agriculture Research Institute, Tando Jam. Soybean seed inoculated and with Rhizobium japonicum and un-inoculated were sown and treated with various NPK levels (0-0-0, 50-25-0, 50-50-0, 75-75-0, 75-100-0, and 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha. Days to maturity, branches, pods, seeds/pod, seeds weight, seed index and seed yield-ha affected significantly (p<0.01) by inoculation treatment during all three seasons. Seed inoculation resulted significantly improved growth and yield, the increase in yield was associated with the increase of all yield components. Similarly, fertilizer regimes had pronounced effect on all the characters studied. Application of 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha improved growth and yield attributes which in turn caused more yield-ha in each season. It may be argued that soybean seed may be inoculated and fertilized with 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha to get better yield, assuming that all soils have an equal initial fertility level.
  N.M. Soomro , F.C. Oad , G.N. Sohu , N.L. Oad , A.W. Gandahi and Z.A. Abbasi
  The experiment was conducted at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan in experimental design of RCBD, replicated four times in net plot size of 3m x 5m, where 74078-1, ICPL-4, Local check, ICPL-2, ICPL-6, ICPL-84, T-21, ICPL-150 pigeonpea varieties/lines were planted for growth and yield potentials. Among the tested cultivars ICPL-6 was observed as dwarf and appeared to be superior one by recording maximum branches, having early maturity, and attempted maximum number of pods and seed index. ICPL-6 also proved itself as high yielding pigeonpea cultivar by recording 2166.70kg grain yield-ha. Thus, it is recommended the ICPL-6 pigeonpea cultivar should be grown for early maturity and high potential yield.
  F.C. Oad , S.M. Qayyum , N.L. Oad , A.W. Gandahi , G.N. Sohu and G.Q. Chandio
  The field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irrigation frequencies applied at different growth stages on the newly evolved wheat genotypes at Agronomy Experimental Field, Agriculture Research Institute, Tando Jam during winter, 1998-99. Three irrigation frequencies 5, 4 and 3 with four wheat genotypes (Mehran-89, Abadgar-93, 7001 and 7002) were included in the study. Plant height, tillers, earheads, seeds per spike, seed weight, seed index, grain yield varied significantly by the irrigation frequencies and genotypes, and their interaction. Application of 5 irrigation resulated in higher grain yield. Among the four varieties tested newly devloped genotypes 7001 and 7002 yielded more than existing (Mehran-89 and Abadgar-93) genotypes.
  F.C. Oad , G.N. Sohu , S.M. Qayyum , A.W. Gandahi , G.Q. Chandio and N.L. Oad
  A field trial was conducted to compare the performance of sunflower varieties under different fertility regims had significant influence on days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, seeds per head, seed index and seed yield, while treatment interactions exposed non-significant influence on all the growth and yield components except plant height. Varieties Ho-1 and Cargll-206 with the fertility regime 120-45 kg N-O/ha produced late flowering and maturity in tall plants, maximum head diameter, seed per head, seed index and seed yield per hectare. Among the tested varieties Ho-1 and Cargil-206 seemed to be better fertilizer responsive and performed well under higher fertility regimes. It was deduced that Ho-1 and Cargil-206 could be satisfactory high yielders if supplied with 120-45 kg N-P per hectare.
  M.A. Narejo , Z.D. Mirani , F.C. Oad and M.I. Kumbhar
  The research work sought to describe the effectiveness of the sources of information used by agricultural extension in dissemination of recommended practices for cotton crop. 220 farmers were randomly drawn to asses the impact of the selected sources such as radio, TV, printed matter, on farmers decision regarding technology adoption. It was found that Radio, extension worker and contact farmers were very effective in diffusing recommended practices to the farmers. Extension agents perceived lack of proper funding and timely visits of their senior staff members as major constraints in dissemination of information of recommended practices.
  F.C. Oad , M.A. Samo , A. Soomro , D.L. Oad , N.L. Oad and A.G. Siyal
  The amount of salt-effected soil in Pakistan Varies in different places. In humid regions the salt problem is limited unlike arid and semi-arid areas. Salt accumulation and water logging mainly threaten Agriculture. Our country exports agriculture commodities, but its exporting quantity is going to be low day by day due to salt problem. It is economical to undertake salinity/sodicity in control limits in order to use that land for agricultural production as well as buildings could be safeguard from the hazard of salt and water logging. The soluble salt that occurs in the soils consists mainly of ions; sodium (Na+), calcium(Ca2+), magnesium(Mg2+), potassium(K+), chloride(Cl) sulfate(SO42 ), bicarbonates(HCO3) and carbonates(CO32). As a result of chemical decomposition and physical weathering these constituents (salts) are generally released and exists on the soil surface or on the crop root zone. A high concentration of such salts interfere the growth of plants, reduces the crop production and land value. The control of this problem is prime important for maximizing and sustainable agriculture. The control of the salts can be through soil applied amendments like gypsum, acids, sulfur, HCl, pressmud, molasses and various field practices including plowing, irrigation, surface flushing, leaching and draining practices.
  A.G. Bhatti , I. Chandio , Sultan Metlo , M. Mithal Jiskani , Z.A. Abbasi and F.C. Oad
  Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc). was isolated from the leaves of cabbage and were identified on the colony characteristics and morphology of conidia. Four fungicides: Dithane M-45, Topsin-M, Liromanzeb, and Vitigran blue were applied. Vitigran blue significantly inhibited the colony growth of Alternaria brassicae followed by Dithane M-45. The number of leaf spots on inocculated leaves were reduced by spraying Vitgran blue followed by Dithane M-45. It is recommended that leaf spots can be controlled by pre-application of both Vitgran blue and Dithane M-45 fungicides.
  F.C. Oad , A.A. Lakho , G.N. Sohu , M.A. Samo , F.M. Sheikh and N.L. Oad
  The study was conducted by the survey method, selecting 15 maize fodder growers randomly in the area of Sakrnad, Sindh, Pakistan . The selected sample respondents were interviewed frequently by personal visits and questionnaires. The interpreted results showed that the total area operated for maize fodder crop was 78 hectares, recording total expenses Rs. 165244.00 (Rs. 2118.51ha-1) total return/income Rs . 943000.00 (Rs. 12089.74 ha-1), Total net returns Rs. 777756.00 (9971.23. ha-1), with the Input Out put Ratio 1: 6.02 and Benefit-Cost Ratio of 5:02.
  Z.D. Mirani , M.A. Narejo and F.C. Oad
  The study sought to describe farmers and extension agents’ views about sustainable agriculture practices in District Hyderabad. Sustainable agriculture in this article is viewed as a system of agriculture that involves the efficient use of resources to satisfy various human needs and at the same time protecting the environment. A questionnaire was developed after literature review and experts advise in this field. Sixty (60) extension agents and 100 farmers were identified as sample. Majority of the respondents were not familiar with the concept of sustainable agriculture. Demonstration method was perceived as the most effective method in understanding the concept.
  F.C. Oad , Pompe Sta. Cruz , N. Memon , N.L. Oad and Zia-Ul-Hassan
  The ratooning is the ability of the plant to regenerate new tillers from stubbles of the main crop. Though the crop thought to be the same, there may be variation in the physiological parameters between the main and ratoon crop. For example panicle development and heading are more uneven in ratoon than that of the main crop. The ratoons vary in their chemical composition according to the node number and position. The general low yield obtained from the ratoon crop is believed to be mainly due to the reduction in number of productive tillers and short growth duration. Although the yield contributing factors like plant height, leaf area, leaf canopy, panicle length, growth duration, cutting height of the stubble etc. are largely governed by the genetic make-up of the plant. Under various cultural practices cutting height of the main crop stubbles is correlated with yield of the ratoon crop, number of auxiliary buds and productive tillers. Also cutting height is correlated with regrowth potential or ratoon vigour, nodal and basal tillers, ratoon rating and ability, uniform growth and maturity, filled spikelets and missing hills. Application of nitrogen fertilizer is considered probably the most important single nutrient elements in growth and yield of ratoons. The rice ratooning offers an opportunity to increase cropping intensity per unit of cultivated area because a ratoon crop has shorter growth duration than the main crop. In addition, ratoon crop may be grown with 50% less labor. Neither land preparation nor planting is needed and the crop uses 60% less water than the main crop. The yield of the ratoon crop may be achieved by 50% of the main crop, if crop management practices are used efficiently.
  F.C. Oad , A.W. Gandahi , N.M. Soomro , M.A. Samo and N.L. Oad
  Field experiment was conducted during summer, 1997, 1998 and 1999 at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri, Larkana, Pakistan. Four soybean cultivars i.e., Bossier, Hampton, Improved Pelican and Clerk-63 were planted at 15 days interval during 1st June through 15th August. First June or 15th June planted soybean produced significantly higher yield over late sowing. Growth and yield components studied decreased significantly as sowing was delayed beyond 15th June. Among four cultivars tried Bossier gave significantly greater yield as compared to rest of the cultivars. Seasonal effect was also significant for all characters studied, 1999 season displayed more yield than did 1997 and 1998 seasons respectively. It is recommended that soybean should be cultivated from 1st June to 15th by planting Bossier variety.
  F.C. Oad and Pompe Sta. Cruz
  The field experiment was conducted at Philippine Rice Institute (PhilRice), located at Maligaya Munoz Nueva Ecija, Phillippines. Rice ratooning ability under 10, 20 and 30 cm stubble cutting heights was evaluated on the basis of basal and nodal tillers regeneration, missing hills, ratoon vigor and rating and grain yield. Out of 30 varieties /lines tested only PSBRc8, PSBRc6 and BPIRi10 showed ratooning potentiality in terms of ratoon vigour and rating, basal and nodal tillers regeneration and final grain yield at lower stubble cutting height of 10 cm. It is recommended that for higher ratoon grain yield cutting of stubbles at the 10 cm should be performed.
  A.A. Siyal , A.G. Siyal , Z.A. Abro , F.C. Oad , M.A. Samo and N.L. Oad
  Both soil water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data are often necessary for solving unsaturated flow problems. A field experiment was carried out at the Agriculture Research Experimental Area, Tandojam to evaluate appropriate and time efficient methodologies to determine soil hydraulic properties. The soil profile on which experiment was carried out consisted of clay, clay loan and silty clay soil. Three conventional analysis methods such as instantaneous profile method, Millington and Quirk method, CGA method, and one parameter optimization model MULSTP were applied to calculate unsaturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil moisture content [K(Ө)] from the field as well as laboratory data. Instantaneous profile method was used as reference against which the alternative methods were compared. The simplified methods (Millington & Quirk and CGA) were found to show satisfactory results with considerably less effort and the VGM parameter optimization method with MULSTP model was found to yield realistic values of hydraulic conductivity. The VGM parameters known through optimization technique by MULSTP model provided extrapolation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity close to the Millington and Quirky CGA methods. Having been based on continuous function, MULSTP has the advantage that it can be used for computer simulation of salt and water movement in the unsaturated soils.
  Z.A. Abro , F.C. Oad , A.G. Siyal , N.L. Oad and A.A. Siyal
  Not Available
  F.C. Oad , M.A. Samo , N.L. Oad , M.U. Usmanikhail and A. Hameed Ansari
  Not Available
  F.C. Oad , M.A. Samo , S.M. Qayyum and N.L. Oad
  Not Available
  F.C. Oad , Z. A. Abro , A. G. Siyal , N. L. Oad and A.A. Siyal
  The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD) and adequate (50 percent SMD) levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.
  A.A.Siyal , A. G. Siyal , Z. A. Abro , A.W. Siyal , R. Memon and F.C. Oad
  Salt affected soils may be reclaimed by leaching, but continuously pending the soil surface and allowing infiltration requires large quantities of water. During such leaching bypass flow occurs, consequently solute within the aggregates is transported much slower decreasing the overall leaching efficiency. The alternate is intermittent leaching which provides time for diffusion of solute from aggregates. Flux density and aggregate size have great effect on the leaching efficiency. Thus leaching of columns of spherical aggregates of three different sizes was carried out in the laboratory with continuous and intermittent leaching to explore the effect of aggregate size and the water flux density on the leaching efficiency. In continuous leaching the inflow of fresh water into column was set equal to outflow of leachate so that the aggregates were bathing in fresh water all the time. In case of intermittent leaching the inflow and out flow of water were regularly interrupted after certain time so as to provide time for salts in aggregates to diffuse out in the macro pores around the aggregates. Experimental results showed that leaching efficiency with intermittent leaching increased with increasing water flux density and aggregate diameter. Depending on the size of aggregate and water flux density water savings up to 65% were obtained under laboratory conditions by using intermittent leaching compared to that of continuous leaching.
  B.R. Kazi , F.C. Oad , G.H. Jamro , L.A. Jamil and A.A. Lakho
  Correlation study between irrigation frequencies and growth yield attributed and yield of brassica species was carried out at Oilseeds Experimental Field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. Four treatments consisting irrigation frequencies viz. 2, 3, 3, 4 and 5 irrigations and three brassica species i.e., Early Raya, Toria Selection and P-269 were studied. The correlation between irrigation frequencies and growth parameters and yield attributes was strong and positive. The regression coefficient indicated that for each increase in irrigation level, the seed yield would increase by 27.78 kg per hectare, but took maximum days to flowering, pod formation, seed formation and delayed maturity.
  B.R. Kazi , F.C. Oad , G.H. Jamro , L.A. Jamil and A.A. Lakho
  Experiments were conducted at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam to study the impact of irrigation frequencies on the growth and yield of soybean Cv. Bragg the experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The irrigation frequencies were 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 irrigations. It was observed that the growth, yield components and oil content were highly significantly affected by irrigation frequencies. Maximum plant height, more branches and pods per plant, seed index and seed yield and oil content percentage were found superior with the application of 6 irrigations followed by 5 irrigations. Whereas, lowest number of irrigations decreased all the traits adversely.
  A. Soomro and F.C. Oad
  The field experiment was conducted at Tandojam, to evaluate the appropriate planting time of various wheat genotypes. It was observed that plant height, yield and yield contributing components were superior when the wheat crop was planted in Mid on November. The late planted crop in December significantly produced less yield and yield components. The optimum planting month observed was November, where most of the wheat genotypes reponded for maximum values. This may be due to favourable climatic conditions for gemination, growth and development. Among the tested cultivars, Sarsabz produced more grain yield as compared to Pavon and TJ-83. Thus, it is recommended that for middle part of Sindh Province, the sowing of wheat crop should be perfomed during the Mid of November where satisfactory yield could be achieved.
  F.C. Oad , G.H. Jamro , A.A. Lakho and G.Q. Chandio
  Experiments on the correlation coefficient of growth and cane yield traits of sugarcane with micro nutrients like: Zn (1.50, 3.00 and 4.50 kg ha-1), Cu (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg ha-1), B (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kg ha-1) and Mn (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kg ha-1) and control where conducted. The results revealed that all micro nutrients showed positive correlation with tillers, tope weight, cane length, internode number and length, stem diameter, hieght, millable cane and cane yield, except copper for tillers, zinc for top weight, boron for top weight and manganese responded significant response for stem diameter and millable canes, respectively. It is suggested that micro nutrients are essential elements for obtaining satisfactory yields for sugarcane. Application of excess amount of these elements reduces the yield by reducing the crop parameter values, but, adequate quantities produced boosted yield. Thus, it is recommended that micro nutrients may be applied after various soil tests and proper levels should be chalked-out.
  S. Bughio , A.A. Moriani , A.H. Mirani , F.C. Oad and B.A. Bughio
  The study was conducted on randomly selected 30 Kamori goats for five kiddings from the flock of Livestock Experimental Station Khudaabad, Sindh, Pakistan. The mean value of age at first kidding of Kamori goat recorded was 565.70 ±12.51 days. The lactation length was higher in 3rd lactation and animal attained 106.60 ±3.49 lactation days whereas maximum kidding interval appeared in kidding 5 where animal had 277.30 ± 25.18 lactation days. In Kamori goat, the average birth of male single kids observed were 24%, whereas, female single births were 26.70%. The male twin births attained were 12%, whereas female twin births were 10%. However, male, female twin births appeared 16.60% and remaining 10.70% births were aborted/still births. It was concluded that Kamori goat is large breed, good milk producer, has rapid growth rate, and prolificacy rate is also higher in this breed.
  M.R. Wagan , F.C. Oad and K.S. Nenwani
  The field trial was conducted to assess the effect of source and schedule of nitrogenous fertilizer on wheat growth and yield contributing characters, at Latif Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan, Wheat variety Sarsabz was drilled to test various nitrogenous fertilizer (urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate) applied in two and three splits with basal dose of P and K. The results revealed that nitrogen applied in three split doses significantly increased plant height, number of tillers, size of earhead, seed index and grain and straw yields as compared to two split applications. Among the source of nitrogen, urea was ranked at first place as compared to ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate fertilizers for growth and yield contributing characters. Therefore, it is recommended that urea is the best source of nitrogen and it should be applied in three split doses during the whole wheat crop growth stages for obtaining satisfactory straw and grain yields.
  U.A. Burriro , H.A. Samoon , F.C. Oad and G.H. Jamro
  Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc) and water use Efficiency (WUE) of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc) increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to complete fill stage of soybean crop. Water use efficiency at 5 bar tensions signified the plants under stress and were more efficient in utilizing water for the production of grain. The higher fertility was exhibited through appropriate fertilizer levels which in-turn increased the water use efficiency and compensated water deficiency. Thus, it is recommended that crop coefficient and fertility levels should be identified for obtaining maximum water use efficiency and yield targets.
  F.C. Oad , S.K. Agha , G.H. Jamro and G.S. Solangi
  The qualitative and quantative survey of weeds in wheat crop at Student’s Experimental Farm, Malir Farm, Latif Farm and the Experimental Filed of Wheat Research Institute Tandojam, Pakistan was conducted. The results revealed that twenty six weed species were found infesting the wheat crop. Most dense populated as well as most frequently occurring weed was Jhil (Chenopodium album). Its frequency and density were 30 and 13.53% respectively at various experimental fields of Tandojam, Pakistan.
  U.A. Buriro , F.C. Oad and S.A. Ali
  The field experiment was conducted at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, TandoJam, Pakistan, during the year 2001-2002 for parameters of sugarcane varieties of other province with the locally evolved commercial variety Gulabi-95. The collection sources were, NARC Islamabad, SRI Faisalabad, SCRI Mardan, PARC Thatta and A.R.I. Tandojam. Among the tested varieties (CP-88/1165, SPF-213, ML-7, FAC-81-745, Thatta-10 and Gulabi-95). The local evolved commercial Gulabi-95 recorded maximum germination percentage, lengthy canes, more internode number, millable canes and cane yield. However, the qualitative parameters i.e. Brix and C.C.S which are important for evolving variety were found higher in the ML-7 sugarcane variety. It is recommended that further research should be performed on ML-7 and Thatta-10 as both varieties seems to be better in qualitative parameters.
  U.A. Buriro , F.C. Oad , S.K. Agha and G.S. Solangi
  The experiment was carried at Student’s Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan on post emergence weed control in wheat. It was noted that most of the weeds present in wheat were broad leaved weeds, whereas narrow leaved grasses and sedges were in small number. With the application of herbicides though the number of weeds of all species decreased but in most of the cases their intensity increased. All the growth, yield and yield parameters increased with the application of herbicides as compared to un-weeded plots. The additional yield (49.98%) was exhibited with the application of Topik 240WP at 250 g ha‾1 herbicide followed by Arelon 50 dispersion at 0.75 l ha‾1, which increased 43.74% grain yield. It is concluded that weeds reduce the economic yield by competing for nutrients, light and moisture. The cost and maintenance of cultivation are increased and soil fertility is degraded due to weed problem. Thus, it is prime important to control weeds and an increase in the yield up to 50% or more can be achieved.
  N. Memon , Zia-ul-Hassan and F.C. Oad
  Banana is an important fruit crop of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It requires high quantity of nutrients that must be supplied through fertilization to obtain optimum yields. To diagnose nutrient deficiencies and exesses using plant analysis is appealing. The nutrient content of plants provides reliable information on their nutritional status at the date of sampling, thus giving a guide not only to any supplementary fertilizer needs of the current crop but also to the probable requirements of future crops. Although it is more costly than soil testing and needs more care in the handling of samples, this method is growing in importance. Interpretation is usually based on the total contents of nutrients in leaves, or other suitable plant parts, in comparison with critical nutrient concentrations or critical values. Another different and fairly new system of plant analysis interpretation is the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) in which interpretation is based on a comparison of calculated elemental ratio indices with established norms. Since bananas are grown from between latitudes 33° north and south and on a wide range of soils, the mineral nutrition of the crop has attracted much attention. The overall requirements of nutrients cab be estimated from analysis of the whole plant and estimated plant growth. The grower needs to know the ability of the soil to meet these requirements and whether supplementary fertilizer is needed. Two approaches have been adopted to solve this problem viz., field experiments and the analysis of plant and soil with the aim of estimating the amount of fertilizer required to optimize yields. Lots of researches have been done regarding banana nutrition management and on its related aspects. This paper encompasses the reviews on the use of plant analysis as a diagnostic tool for banana nutrition management, banana sampling for plant analysis, utilization of plant analysis data, plant analysis interpretation using critical level concept and DRIS norms and most importantly banana nutrition management with special reference to Pakistan.
  N.L. Oad , F.C. Oad , H.r. Mangio , Z.A. Abro and A. Soomro
  The experiment was conducted to test various irrigation patterns for maximum yield at Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, during the year 1999. All the cultural practices were adopted to maintain the area free from weeds and insect pests. The results of the experiment showed the superiority of irrigation pattern where canal water (ECe 0.5 to 1.00 dS/cm) was applied followed by those irrigation patterns where canal irrigation water was used in two growth stages which recorded highest values of plant stand, plant height, cob length, cob diameter, cob number, seed index, dry forage and grain yield. The lowest growth and yield contributing parameter values were exhibited in those irrigation patterns where pumped saline water (ECe 1.25 to 1.50 dS/cm was used during the growing period or pumped saline water was applied in two growing stages of the corn crop. Based on the results it is recommended that canal water should be used during the growing period. But, if there is scarcity of canal water then pumped saline water could be used in one growth stage and canal water in other growth stages. Kev words: Corn. vield. irriaation. water Qualities
  B.K. Solangi , F.C. Oad , V.Suthar , N.M. Soomro , A.W.Gandahi and N.L.Oad
  An investigation on loss assessment of Tobacco Cutworm (Spodoptera litura F.) on turnip crop was under taken during winter season, 1998-99 at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri, Sindh, Pakistan. The seeds of local turnip variety were planted during second week of October, 1998. The insect population observations were recorded one month after sowing. The population of cutworm remained on turnip crop from November, 1998 to February, 1999, which indicated one generation of the pest on turnip crop. The maximum population of Tobacco Cutworm (Spodoptera litura F.) was 11.72 per plant, which recorded 12.25 percent damage in the crop at 19.97°C temperature and 75.85% relative humidity. The population of Tobacco Cutworm was significantly correlated with the age of the turnip plants. During November-December (vegetative stage) the population percentage was positively correlated and showed increasing trend (b= 0.24). However, population was negatively correlated and had decreasing trend (b= -0.249) when the crop was at maturity phase. This was due to the fact that crop early growth phase had sufficient number of green leaves containing chlorophyll which favoured the pest population for the food and survival.
  G.S. Solangi , G.M. Mahar and F.C. Oad
  The study on appearance and abundance of different insect predators against sucking insect pest of cotton in field conditions was conducted in the farmer`s field, Kot Banglow District Khairpur, Pakistan. The population of sucking insect pests and insect predators were observed 20 days after sowing of the cotton crop. The insects were counted with the help of the magnifier lens. The analysis of data indicates that there was highly significant difference in days of observations, population of sucking insect pests and predator population. The mean maximum population of whitefly (31.98 plant-1) was observed in first week of the September at relative mean temperature 32.60°C, however the maximum population of thrips (29.96 plant-1) and jassids (3.93 plant-1) was found in last week of the August at relative mean temperature 32.88°C. The maximum overall means of whitefly in various observation days were observed (15.90 plant-1), followed by thrips (14.30 plant-1) and jassid (2.08 plant-1). The predator population of Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, Big eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes linearly increased but the population of Pirate bug, Orius insidiosus decreased in the last week of August at relative mean temperature 32.88°C. The maximum overall means of Green Lacewing in various observation days was 2.07 plant-1), followed by Pirate bug (1.84 plant-1) and Big eyed bug (1.28 plant-1). The results indicated that the sucking insect pests were below the economic injury level at all phenological stages of the cotton plant due to the regular increase in predator population. The predators were active throughout the cotton season due to non-application of pesticides in and around the experimental area. The correlation coefficient (R = 0.563) showed a positive relationship between insect predators and sucking insect pest population. The increase in sucking insect population also exhibited an increase in predator population in observed days and trend line shows increase in insect predator population with sucking insect pest population during the growth stages of cotton crop.
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