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Articles by F. Rahim
Total Records ( 28 ) for F. Rahim
  F. Rahim , B. Keikhaei , A. Sarkaki and A.H. Doulah
  The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of right-unilateral lesion of substantia nigra neurons by means of Ibotenic acid, a cholinergic-selective neurotoxin, on hematological parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200±50 g at the start of the experiment were used. The substantia nigra was right-unilateral lesioned by stereotaxic microinjections of ibotonic acid. Seven days after neurosurgery, we assessed the total number of White Blood Cells (WBC), the total number of Red Blood Cells (RBC), Red Cell Distribution (RDW), platelet and hemoglobin level and the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin,(MCH), Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)). Ibotenic acid treatment induced a highly significantly decrease of white blood cells, followed by significant decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin level comparative with sham-operated rats. Also in the ibotenic acid-lesioned rats the erythrocyte indexes (Mean Cell Volume, MCV; Mean Cell Hemoglobin, MCH were significantly decreased comparative with sham-operated rats. By contrast, platelets, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell distribution width were significantly increased in the ibotonic-acid lesioned rat versus sham-operated animals. On the whole, the obtained data indicate the important role of the central nerves system in the regulation of erythrocyte dynamics.
  F. Rahim and G. Saki
  This study taking to account the limitations of studies in this area, aimed to compare the survival rate, fertilization capacity and developmental capacity of oocyte that cryo-preserved in open pulled and conventional straw. Total 90 females NMRI mice were used in this research. First the male mice were scarified then the caudal part of epididymis was isolated. By creating cuts in caudal part of epididymis, sperms were isolated and put in T6 medium + 5 mg mL-1 BSA. Later on the sperms were incubated under 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2 h. Then sperm were added to living control, cryo-preserved in conventional and open pulled straws oocytes. After 4-6 h changing medium, two nuclear and two-cell embryos were evaluated 8 and 24 h after addition of the sperms, respectively. Comparing the two groups shows that the vitrified oocyte of open pulled straw method had better and significant different survival rate than conventional method (p = 0.001). Furthermore, between open pulled group and conventional group also there was significant different in term of fertilization rate (p = 0.001). The developmental capacity of open pulled straw group was significantly higher that conventional straw group (p = 0.002). Oocyte cryo-preservation, if consistent and successful, offers a way to avoid the complications of routine IVF therapy. Oocytes may need to be cryo-stored in the event of unforeseen non-production of sperm during IVF therapy, allowing a more measured consideration of donor sperm use or other means of sperm retrieval.
  S. Nikakhlagh , F. Rahim , G. Saki , A. Khosravi , H. Rekabi and N. Saki
  The aim of this retrospective study was investigating the anatomical position and causes of deep neck infections as well as detection of the relation of these variables with age and gender of the patients. In this study, patient with primary deep neck infections referred to ear, nose and throat ward during 1998 to 2009, were studied. After definite diagnosis of infection in head and neck spaces, the exact infection-causing agent and its complications were reviewed. Furthermore, age and sex of patients, co-existing symptoms, bacterial culture results causing the infection, disease background, presence or absence of addiction reviewed and information obtained in the questionnaire were recorded. For comparison Chi-square test was used. The most common cause of deep neck infection, was dental infection in 130 patients [(49%); 78, male; 52, female] followed by tonsillar infection in 44 patients (16.6%). The deep neck infection space types: simultaneous spaces includes sub-mandibular, sub-mental, sub-lingual (Ludwig's angina) in 59 patients (45.4%), then sub-mandibular space in 54 patients (41.5 %) and para-pharyngeal space in 32 patients (24.6%) were more common. Bacterial culture were done only in 50 patients, of which, 28 cases of bacterial growth occurred. The most common organism was streptococcus viridians in 18 patients. The deep neck infections are dangerous and life-threatening that often occurs due to dental infections. Therefore, it seems that promote public knowledge about oral health, to increase the need of dental and treatment centers, timely cure and manage the infections, which play an important role in reducing the deep neck infections.
  S. Razie , M. Panahi , A. Ahangarpor , F. Rahim and G. Saki
  This study was designed to evaluate the ultrastructure of contra lateral testis tissue and measurement of Serum inhibin B following unilateral blunt testis trauma. Twenty pre-pubertal male wistar albino rats aged 3 weeks were divided into 4 equal groups that each containing five rats. Group I was the control group. Group II was used as a Sham group. Group III had right orchiectomy initially. Group IV was the trauma group in which the right testis was placed on a firm sterile surface and the metal rod weighting 100 g was drooped on to the testis from a height of 5.5 cm. Seven weeks after initial operation 3 mL blood samples were obtained from each rat to determine inhibin B levels and contra lateral orchiectomies were performed in all groups to microscopically investigate electron. Inhibin B levels decreased in groups 3 and 4. The difference between group 3 with groups 1 and 2 was significant (p = 0.003 and 0.02). Also the difference between group 4 with groups 1 and 2 was significant (p = 0.006 and 0.002) but the difference between group 3 and 4 was not significant (p = 0.08). In group III (orchiectomy) TEM showed a normal sperm morphology and normal disruption of different stages of the spermatogonial maturation. Debris and vacuolar changes were seen in sertoli cells. Morphology of leydig cells slightly modified and the dilated cisternae of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) were observed in group IV( trauma) mitochondria with degenerated cristae and enlarged vacuole were observed.
  S. Nikakhlagh , N. Saki , R.A. Baghbdrani , F. Rahim and A.F.Z. Sheikh
  This analysis aimed to resolve the qualitative and quantitative microbiology of adenoid tissue in children with or without recurrent otitis media. Total 133 children (aged 1-9 years) due to adenoid infection that underwent adenoidectomy in Imam Khomeini Hospital between Jan 2008 to Dec 2009, were engaged in this study. Of the 133 children studied, 67 (50.36%) patients with recurrent otitis media and 66 (49.62%) patients in the group without recurrent otitis media were observed. The most common organisms isolated were Alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Heamophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All the organisms were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococci were the most common types that were isolated from 31 (23.3%) patients with recurrent otitis media and from 27 (20.3%) patients without recurrent otitis media. Out of 66 cases without recurrent otitis media, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococci were more common in age groups of 2 to 3 years [9 patients (6.76%)] and age groups of 4 and 5 years [9 patients (6.76%)]. Of 67 patients with recurrent otitis media, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococci were observed more in age group 4 to 5 years [8 patients (6%)]. As the result, Gram negative bacteria revealed significant differences among patients with and without recurrent otitis media (p<0.001). This study shows that the incidence of tonsil bacterial infection in children with recurrent otitis media is higher than children without recurrent otitis media.
  S. Khaghani , M.R. Bihamta , F. Rahim and S. Khaghani
  This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of water stress (limited irrigation) on different traits of bean. Fifteen bean genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions (24 traits were recorded). The results showed, the most decrease in the bean has been the plant yield. The results of step wise regression showed that the length of the longest pod and the number of pod per plant under non-stress condition and 100-seed weight, number of seed per plant and days of cotyledon leaves appearance under stress condition had the most effect on the yield. Since all of these traits showed us a considerable changes in yield, to study of direct and indirect effects these traits were used. Results analysis indicated a high direct affects of traits in non-stress conditions and there were no conspicuous indirect affects in these traits. Direct affects of 100-seed weight, seed number per bush in stress condition was very high, but indirect affects showed a weak consequence. As a result a direct selection is suggested for these traits. Direct affects of day`s number till the leaves appearance was less considerable in compare with two previous traits and also indirect affects were unwanted. In resistance amount studying, indirect affects of tolerance`s susceptibility and also traits changes percentage in stress conditions were measured. Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI) and Mean Productivity (MP) were the most suitable indicators for selecting drought resistant genotypes. Based on these indicators KS-31146 and KS-31150 in red beans, were found as resistant genotypes.
  F. Rahim , G. Saki and M. Bazrafkan
  This study is an attempt to elucidate the effect of alcoholic extract of the Ruta graveolens L. on the sperm count, motility and in vitro fertilization capacity of Wistar rats. Total 24 adult male Wister rats, 90- day-old and weighing 210±10.6 g were used in this study. All animals were housed individually per cage under a 12 h light/dark cycle, 20±2°C temperature and 60-65% humidity-controlled room with food and water ad libitum. All counts were performed at 37°C in T6 media. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Initial sperm motility was manually assessed by a single individual in duplicate for each sample by evaluating 100 sperms. In every group of this study 8 adult male rats were used. The sperm count was 2798.5±192.40 in group 1, 2801.8±418.67 in group 2 and 1017.4±820.69 in group 3. Therefore, group 3 has a significant lower sperm count in comparison with other groups. Progressive sperm motility was 57.20±2.81 in group 1, 55.25±1.82 in group 2 and 19.26±3.17 in group 3. The analysis shows that rats in group 3 have significant lower sperm motility in comparison with other groups. The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in group 3 was significantly lower than other groups. As a conclusion, the alcohol extract of Ruta graveolens L. can be suggested as agent against male fertility but the exact mechanism of action is not understood yet so more experimental shall be done to reveal its effect as a contraceptive plant.
  A. Ebadi , N. Saki , S. Nikakhlagh and F. Rahim
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of adenoidectomy under general anesthesia from May 2004 to August 2008. In this retrospective study, 747 patients from 1 to 15 years of age were scheduled underwent general anesthesia with mixture of thiopentone with atracurium, fentanyl and glucose-free solutions, for adenoidectomy surgery compatible with the technique. The following factors were assessed: age, ASA physical status, gender, preoperative, during operation and post-operative pulse rate. A total of 747 adenoidectomy were performed during the study period. One hundred and twenty three cases (16.46%) had bradycardia during adenoidectomy. More population were under 3 years old (49.55%) and males (76.7%). Out of 123 cases that developed bradycardia, 80 cases without need to atropine treatment and only 43 cases that need intravenous Atropine for control of it. Adenoidectomy is the most common operations performed in children under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy related incidents were the most common cause and were more likely to occur during the maintenance phase of anesthesia, due to the vagal stimulation. Bradycardia due to surgery stimulation happened very early and patients were able to recover from the administration of atropine.
  S. Khaghani , R.V. Shoushtari , H.R. Zolfagharieh , S. Khaghani and F. Rahim
  This study aimed to investigate the non-chemical performance against the Tribolium confosum, the influence of gamma irradiation in various doses on the young and aged adult. The insects were reared in a laboratory condition (27±1°C, RH; 65±10% and L: D, 8:16) and after gamma irradiation, they were kept in the same mentioned condition. Furthermore, the gamma ray effect on baking flour was studied before and after irradiation. Due to the primary tests, the extent of experienced does for the growth period of young-adult and mature-adult insects were determined. The young-adult and aged-adult insects were exposed to the selected doses and their mortality rate were registered after 24 h. The analysis showed that the killer does for 50% of their population in the young and aged adult was 1223.91 and 2296.15 Gy in 3 days, respectively. This study supports the assertion that relatively low doses of irradiation can serve as a disinfestations treatment. Product damage could be significantly reduced at a minimum irradiation dose while in high dose the mortality should take into the account.
  S. Nikakhlagh , F. Rahim , A. Khodadadi and N. Saki
  The aimed to evaluate the plasma level of Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA)-IgA and IgG in family members of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patient in comparison to healthy controls in Southwestern of Iran. Total 60 NPC patients were compared with 60 sex, age and ethnically matched healthy controls. The obtained serum samples participants were tested for VCA-IgA, VCA-IgG, Early Antigen (EA), IgG, EBNA-IgG by ELIZA. There was no significant difference in all EBV antibodies between patients and control groups (p>0.05). The serological of three IgG antibody meant that 66.6% of two groups had the past infection; of NPC families 6.6% and from controls 1.6% were susceptible to infection with EBV. 3.3% in members of NPC families had reactivation infection. The sex of the patients in case group had positive correlation with VCA-IgA, EBNA-IgG, EA-IgG and negative correlation with VCA-IgG. The age of the patients also showed positive correlation with EBNA-IgG, EA-IgG, VCA-IgG and negative correlation with VCA-IgA. None of the EBV antibodies had significant correlation with age and sex of the patients. Because of no statistical difference between VCA-IgA mean titr from members of NPC families and controls, there is the not higher risk for members of NPC families to controls for NPC. The cause that had positive VCA-IgA also had positive EBNA-IgG and VCA-IgG. Anti-EBV antibodies can be used as diagnostic markers of NPC in Southwestern region of Iran. The combined use of two or more markers marginally improved the discriminating power but that has to take into consideration the higher costs.
  M. Davoudi , M.S.Z. Sharifi and F. Rahim
  The purpose of this study was to observe the complications of needle biopsy of chest lesions guided by the CT scan among the patients studied. This is a descriptive epidemiologic study. All patients that referred to Imam Khomeini in Ahwaz from 2005 to 2007 and it was necessary to biopsy the chest lesions were studied. Snapshot files on lung CT scan lesion size and depth measurements and the biopsy samples obtained were sent to pathology. After the biopsy the patient CT scan was to act as the presence or absence of symptoms, proper action was made. Among 102 patients studied, 85 patients (83.4%) were uncomplicated, but 8 patients (7.9%) were suffered from pneumothorax. In the study were made between lesion size and depth of complications found no correlation, but between lesion location and complications caused there was statistically significant difference. The needle biopsy guided by CT scan due to low complications in many cases is a suitable diagnostic method.
  F. Rahim , G. Saki , B. Ghavamizadeh , A. Jafaee and M. Kadkhodaee
  This study was conducted in vitro to show the effect of oxamate on motility and fertility of the mouse. The spermatozoa were extracted from the caudal part of epididymis. The study animals divided into four groups: (1) control group in TYH medium+5 mg mL-1 BSA ; (2) test groups in TYH medium in which contain 10 Mm oxamate; (3) test groups in TYH medium in which contain 20 Mm oxamate and (4) test groups in TYH medium in which contain 30 Mm oxamate. All four groups were incubated for 90 min to obtain capacitation. Further their motility was checked after incubation time. The mice were super ovulated with PMSG and HCG hormones to obtain oocytes. Total of 600 oocytes were collected and cultured in drops of KSOM medium+5 mg mL-1 BSA, then for fertilization process received spermatozoa from different groups of mentioned above. After 24-26 h, the rate of fertilization was checked. The results of this research indicated that oxamate at the concentration of 20 and 30 Mm significantly reduce (p<0.05) the progress of motility and fertility. Statistical analysis showed that percentage of the sperm progress motility in both concentration of 20 and 30 Mm was significantly differ (p<0.05) in compare with control group and in concentration of 10 Mm, respectively. The same results were obtained in the case of fertility. These findings suggested that oxamate has an inhibitory role on motility and fertility of mouse sperm.
  S.E.M. Nejad , M.R.A. Nikpour , F. Rahim , S.N. Naghibi and M.A. Bahrammi
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of lamotrigine and valproate in patients with different types of generalized epilepsy characterized by myoclonic seizures as well as compare the efficacy of those two drugs. A pilot, randomized controlled trial analysis of 46 female patients (age 8-30 years) in a large university hospital. All patients underwent several interictal EEG including routine awake and sleep EEGs. Lamotrigine was started at the dose of 500 mg day-1 and was progressively increased to a mean dose of 1500-2000 mg day-1 in a time course of 8 weeks. The target maintenance dose for valproate was 800 mg day-1 after starting valproate at the dose of 200 mg/12 h. The mean dose was reached within 4 weeks. Out of total 46 patients, 46 (100%) had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; 43 (93.48%) had tonic-clonic; 5 (11%) had myoclonic absences. In the valproate and lamotrigine groups, there was significant reduction (p<0.001, p<0.001) in myoclonic seizure and tonic-clonic seizure frequencies. There was no clinically significant difference (p>0.05) between the effect of those two drugs that means the lamotrigine and valproate have similar effect in reducing the myoclonic seizure and tonic-clonic seizure frequencies. There was statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of those two drugs that means the lamotrigine and valproate also have significant effect in reducing the absences seizure frequency. The results suggest that lamotrigine monotherapy is a possible alternative for valproate among patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy who experienced unaccepted side effects or inadequate seizure control with valproate monotherapy.
  R. Bavrasad , N. Sharaf al-Din Zadeh , S.E.M. Nejad , N.M. Nasab and F. Rahim
  This study was accompanied due to high mortality and morbidity in these patients trying to find more useful treatment. A total 54 patient with ICH Next to stroke referred to Ahwaz Golestan hospital from Jul 2008 to 2009 were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single intravenous dose of 40 μg kg -1 of rFVIIa or placebo. The performance by a clinical neurologist and based on the international ranking (Rankin's scale) on the first day of hospitalization and 90 days after discharge was evaluated. There was no significant difference in mean arterial blood pressure between placebo and patient groups. Percentage increase in both the second day of bleeding volume in the patient and placebo groups was 2.35 and 0.35%, respectively. The total difference between the first day and third day in the patient and placebo group was -7.76- and -2.99%, respectively. Patients with MAP value of more than 120 mmHg, showed a significant response to rFVIIa treatment. Recombinant activated factor VII has the potential to limit or even halt the progression of bleeding in brain hemorrhagic patients that would otherwise place growing pressure on the brain. As such, these data suggest that the use of rFVIIa holds promise in the setting of non-surgical intracranial bleeding. Whether this usage will have a positive impact on the neurological outcome lies in a future prospective clinical trial whose planning is underway.
  B.S.M. Zadeh , H. Moghimi , P. Santos , J. Hadgraft , Majella E. Lane and F. Rahim
  The basic objective of this study was to formulation of microemulsion for improvement of nitrofurazone permeation through silicon membrane and comparison between barrier properties of third-degree burned eschar and silicon as burn wound imitating coverage. Microemulsions were prepared with titration method and for evaluation the effect of parameter on barrier properties, three independent factors: proportion of surfactant/ co surfactant, percent of oil phase and Propylene Glycol (PG) as co surfactant were selected. The effect of independent variables on permeability parameters such as flux, D and Tlag were studied. Results showed, silicon performed less permeable membrane than eschar. The effects of microemulsion parameters on nitrofurazone permeability across silicon were not significant, but PG with effect on partitioning phenomena, increased flux and isopropyl myristate increased D.
  R. Bavrasad , S.E.M. Nejad , A.R. Yarahmadi , S.I. Sajedi and F. Rahim
  This randomized-double-blind aimed to show the effect of middle dose of topiramate and monitor the sodium valproate as a treatment quite acceptable in migraine prophylaxis as well as compare health and treatment effects in reducing both frequency and the severity of headache. Seventy-three females patients filled questionnaire based on the migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) in the beginning and end of the study. Frequency, severity, duration of headache attacks and symptoms of drug in each of the patients are listed in his file. The effects of middle dose of topiramate (50-75 mg) and sodium valproate (400-600 mg) in the prevention of migraine headache was compared. Out of the 73 patients three cases were excluded due to unwanted and adverse events. Although, both drugs have been successful in reducing headache frequency more than 50% within the study, but there was no significant difference. The MIDAS score in topiramate group reduced more than the group receiving valproate sodium, which indicates changes, was statistically significant in both groups before treatment. The most common complications recorded in the group receiving topiramate were, paresthesia followed by weight loss, drowsiness and dizziness in topiramate group. While, the most common complications recorded in the group receiving sodium valproate were, drowsiness, weight gain, hair loss, nausea and Tremor. This trial demonstrates that topiramate significantly reduced mean monthly migraine and was a safe and well-tolerated preventive therapy in this group of subjects with migraine, a therapeutic area in which profound clinical needs exist.
  M. Jasemi , G. Saki and F. Rahim
  To evaluate the effect of varicocele repair on sperm motility, sperm condensation and pregnancy rate in varicocele patients who referred to Department of Urology of Golestan and Apadana hospitals. The records were retrospectively evaluated for infertile patients with palpable varicocele who underwent varicocelectomy at Department of Urology of Golestan and Apadana Hospitals, Ahwaz, Iran from December 1990 to September 2008. The semen analysis of patient at pre-operatives and 3, 6 and 12 months post-operative and also pregnancy rate was calculated at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Before operation, no significant differences were seen among patients with right and left varicocele in sperm motility and condensation (p>0.05). Significant differences were seen in sperm motility and condensation of patients with bilateral varicocele compared to another patients (p<0.05). After surgery in three groups of patients with varicocele, the sperm motility and condensation significantly increased (p<0.05). Percentage of spontaneous pregnancy in 1 year after varicocele treatment is 31 to 40% of cases. The results of present study have shown that repair of varicocele by surgery significantly improved sperm motility, condensation and also 31-40% of infertile patients achieved pregnancy spontaneously.
  M. Cina , F. Rahim and M. Davudi
  This study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate the accuracy and performance of ultrasonography in detection of intussusception as well as to prevent unnecessary surgery. Between May 2007 to December 2008, 54 patients with suspected intussusception underwent screening ultrasonography. The mean age of the patients was 2.7 years. Patients were divided into groups according to age and gender. Out of 54 patients, 27 had negative ultrasonographic results and the rest 27 had positive results. Out of 27 patients who had a negative ultrasonographic result, 26 patients had a correct ultrasonographic results and one has no intussusception was evident on air enema. Among those 26 patients, in 21 (96.2%) patients air enema was positive for intussusception (true negative) and in 5 (3.7%) patients surgery were positive for intussusception (false negative). Twenty-seven patients had a positive ultrasonographic result; 25 (92.5%) (True positive) were confirmed by air enema and 2 (7.4%) intussusception were confirmed by surgery (false positive). The total accuracy rate was 94.4%, sensitivity was 92.5%, specificity was 96.2%, positive predictive value was 96.1% and negative predictive value was 92.8%. Accuracy of ultrasonography in screening for suspected intussusception is high and has gained both the respect and confidence of the pediatricians. However, sonographically guided hydrostatic reduction of childhood intussusception is a simple, safe and very successful technique that does not expose the child to ionizing radiation and can in many cases replace operative management.
  F. Rahim , A. Ebadi , G. Saki and A. Remazani
  This research was performed to study the prevalence of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHDs) in Iranian population. Data on the prevalence of CHDs were collected and analyzed from the major hospitals of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, Iran from the year 1998 to 2007. The present investigation in Ahwaz, from 1998 to 2007, revealed a mean prevalence of 12.30 per 1000 live births of the total 3061 inpatients and live births with a yearly prevalence varying from 7.93 to 17.51 per 1000 live births. The most frequent type of CHD was found to be Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) (19.54%) followed by Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (16.99%), Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) (17.97%), Shunt (11.47%) and Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) (11.07%). The prevalence of CHDs in Ahwaz is increasing from 1998 to 2007 which might be due to the improvement of diagnosis, attention or awareness among the medical authorities on the disease. The prevalence of CHDs in Ahwaz is not very high, however; it is an important disease which needs an immediate medical attention.
  F. Rahim , B. Keikhaei and A. Ebadi
  Respiratory function tests and arterial blood gas analysis were performed on 59 patients with β-thalassemia major (27 M, 22 F, age range: 18-45 years). All investigations were performed 24 h before the patients received a blood transfusion or when they were in a stable state hematologic condition. Echocardiography was performed in all patients and the ejection fraction was employed as a measure of cardiac function. No patient had clinical signs of pulmonary dysfunction. Pulmonary function tests, however, showed a reduction of all main parameters (TLC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% and RV) in most patients with β-thalassemia major, indicating a restrictive type of dysfunction. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range. There was no evidence that the observed abnormalities in pulmonary function were secondary to congestive heart failure. The low hemoglobin concentration and a fall in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar-capillary membrane, together with the dependence of the reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity on age and serum ferritin levels, as well as of the entity of restrictive disease on age, suggests that pulmonary dysfunctions in patients with TM are due mainly to lung fibrosis and/or interstitial edema related to iron overload. Also iron deposition due to repeated blood transfusions may play a central role in determining lung alterations although the majority of patients are well chelated, suggesting that more than one causal mechanism could be involved.
  S.A. Hosseini , F. Rahim and K. Mola
  The aim of this study was showing the suppressive effect of fish oil supplementation on clinical symptom in rheumatoid arthritis. Forty two patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) entered a trial to determine the clinical and biochemical effects of dietary supplementation with fractionated fish oil fatty acids. A randomized study design with 4 and 8 week treatment periods were used. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and with disease modifying drugs was continued throughout the study. There were significant improvement of RF (p = 0.009), ESR (p = 0.003) and serum CRP (p = 0.002) after 8 weeks fish oil supplement, but after 4 weeks the RF (p = 0.004) only showed significant improvement. This study shows that dietary fish oil supplementation is effective in suppressing clinical symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
  N. Saki , F. Rahim , S. Nickakhlagh , H. Dehdashti and G. Saki
  This retrospective study was conducted to define the relationship of between existences of the bronchial cysts and fistulas with gender of patients as well as review of literature. Data were collected from the records of total 149 patient files (63 male and 86 female) with including history of having branchial cleft anomalies (cysts and fistulas), that admitted in ENT Department of Imam Khomeini and Apadana Private Hospitals between 1998 and 2008. The analyzed characteristics include gender of patient, anatomical location and type the anomaly. The most frequent type of branchial cleft anomalies in cyst and fistula disorders was second branchial with the values of 85.71% in 21 male patients, 37.5% in total 48 patients; 76.19% in 42 male patients, 31.68% in total 101 patients and values of 62.97% in 27 patients, 35.41% in total 48 cases; 76.27% in 59 female patients, 44.55% in total 101 cases, respectively. There was no significant difference in frequency (p>0.05) between male and female patients as well as the locations of anomalies in neck. The overall frequency of the second branchial cleft in different types of disorders such as cysts and fistulas in Southwest region of Iran is the highest, which was similar to international findings. In summary, anatomical location and type of congenital neck masses help narrow the differential diagnosis.
  M. Davoodi , N. Saki , G. Saki and F. Rahim
  The aim of this research was to study of the relationship between anatomical variations of neurovascular structures adjacent sphenoid sinus with sex and position of appearance by using CT scan. In this retrospective study paranasal sinuses CT scan has been taken from 399 patients (210 male, 189 female) that referred to Imam Khomeini and Apadana Hospitals, Ahwaz, Iran. Furthermore, protrusion and dehiscence of Internal Carotid Artery (ICA), Maxillary Nerve (MN), Vidian Nerve (VN) and Optic Nerve (ON) into the sphenoid sinuses cavity have been investigated by using CT scan results. In 210 male patients the protrusion of interested variables were noticed as: ICA in 102 (48.5%) cases, ON in 80(38%) cases, MN in 74 (35.5%) cases, and VN in 60 (28.5%) cases, respectively. Also in 189 female patients group the protrusion of ICA, ON, MN, VN were noticed in 65 (34.3%), 66 (34.9%), 62 (32.8%) and 43 (22.7%) cases, respectively. The statistical analysis show significant difference (p = 0.001) of protrusion of ICA between male and female groups. In 210 male patients the dehiscence of ICA, ON, MN, VN were noticed in 82 (39%), 60 (28.5%), 60 (28.5%) and 66 (31.4%) cases, respectively. Also in 189 female patients the dehiscence of interested variables were noticed as: ICA in 85 (44.9 %), ON in 87 (46%), MN in 69 (36.5%), VN in 71 (37.5%) cases, respectively. The statistical analysis show significant difference (p = 0.03) of dehiscence of on variable in male and female groups. In order to increase the risk of intra-operative complications detailed preoperative investigation of neurovascular structures in sphenoid sinuses by use of CT scan images should be done properly.
  K. Saadipour , A. Sarkaki , H. Alaei , M. Badavi and F. Rahim
  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term forced exercise protocol on passive avoidance retention in morphine-exposed rats. Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of retention have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups including: (1) non-morphine-exposed without exercise (nA.nE) (2) non-morphine-exposed with exercise (nA.E) (3) morphine-exposed without exercise (A.nE) and (4) morphine-exposed with exercise (A.E). Rats ran as forced exercise on the motorized treadmill 1 h daily for ten days. Morphine-exposed animals received intraperitoneal morphine during first 5 days of the exercise period and their dependence to morphine was confirmed by naloxane admistration (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and withdrawal test. After 10 days of forced exercise, step down latency was tested and Inflexion Ratio (IR) was evaluated in each rat. Baseline step down latencies before any morphine exposing or exercise have shown no significant alteration in all groups. Inflexion Ratio (IR) of nA.E group has increased significantly (p<0.001) at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after receiving shock (learning) compared to nA.nE and A.E groups. Our data showed that short-term forced exercise on treadmill improved retention in both morphine-exposed and non morphine-exposed rats at least up to 7 days and more than 14 days, respectively. Alteration in retention between exercised groups may attribute the release of adrenal stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone because of the emotional arousal.
  N. Saki , F. Rahim , S. Nikaghlagh and G. Saki
  Foreign body in the esophagus is a common emergency presentation. Foreign body aspirations comprise the majority of accidental deaths in childhood. Conventional x-ray imaging is usually obtained to aid the diagnosis during the initial evaluation. The decision for surgical intervention is usually based on a suspicious history, physical examination and radiologic findings. Rigid bronchoscopy is very effective procedure for inhaled foreign body removal with fewer complications. Proper use of diagnostic techniques provides a high degree of success and the treatment modality to be used depending on the type of the foreign body is mostly satisfactory. Live foreign body is a rare entity but common emergency presentation. The approach towards a patient with leech infestation comprises a thorough history and systematic examination followed by relevant investigations. However, there is considerable debate over the most appropriate treatment option for such patients. A living foreign body, or parasite, in the oro-or naso-pharynx is rare in Western countries, but in other parts of the world is a fairly common cause of problems. In the past 10 years 28 cases of foreign bodies due to infestation with leeches were treated in our departments. In all patients, 2-70 years old, the complaint was of recurrent episodes of epistaxis, blood-spitting, odynophagia, dysphagia, dyspnea and hemoptysis several days before admission. Examination showed a green-brown mass protruding from different naso- and oro-pharengeal areas, which is in every case, was a blood-engorged leech. Treatment consisted of removing the leech by applying a forceps to the middle of the leech's body and giving a quick pull. Bleeding ceased immediately after removal of the leech. This review aims to develop a comprehensive approach towards patients presenting with foreign body ingestion by developing clinical practice guidelines. These guidelines address not only the initial evaluation of the patient but also the various management alternatives and their advantages, limitations and applicability in various scenarios, based upon a review of the literature.
  A.S. Shirazi , M. Sametzadeh , R. Kamankesh and F. Rahim
  This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in clinically suspected cases of acute appendicitis. A total of 110 patients clinically suspected to have acute appendicitis admitted to the surgery departments of Golestan and Imam Khomeini hospitals, from March 2006 to 2007. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography with focus on RLQ ultrasonographying the graded compression technique was done. Positive ultrasonography was defined as at least one of the criteria of puylaert. The sonographic data were prospectively correlated with clinical, operative and pathological findings. Graded compression ultrasonography results were analyzed and remarked 92.7% sensitivity, 94.5% specificity, 93% accuracy, 94.4% positive predictive value and 92.5% negative predictive value. Ultrasonography is an accurate, safe and reliable method in the diagnosis of suspected cases of acute appendicitis that can help to minimize negative appendectomies and perforation rates.
  E. Kusnadi and F. Rahim
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of floor density and feeding system on the weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen as well as the plasma Triiodothyronine level of Bayang Duck. Objective of the experiment was to know the effect of floor density and feeding system on the weights of bursa of Fabricius and spleen as well as the plasma triiodothyronine level in the Ducks. As animal materials in the experiment were used Bayang Ducks, a localized kind of domestic water poultry. Bayang Ducks have been being reared traditionally by small farmers in District Pesisir Selatan of The Province of West Sumatera-Indonesia. In amount of 80 ducks treated since they were 2 weeks age and average body weight 135±0.39g until finishing of six weeks experimental period. The experiment was arranged into Split Plot Design in CRD with factors Floor density D1 0.48 sq m/duck, D2 0.08 sq m/duck and feeding systems F1 ration and F2 free choice. Every treatment had five replications and every experimental unit consisted of four ducks. The measured variables were relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen as well as level of triiodothyronine in blood plasma. Data were analyzed statistically with Split Plot Design in CRD. The experiment resulted in that the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius as well as spleen and the level of plasma triiodothyronine (T3) as D1 and F1 effects significantly higher than that of S2 and F2 respectively.
  J. Saki , L. Akhlaghi , S. Maraghi , A.R. Meamar , M. Mohebali , H. Oormazdi , E. Razmjou , S. Khademvatan and F. Rahim
  This study aims to evaluate the modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium by adding mycosel agar to inhibit the growth of fungi and comparing it to traditional culture for the isolation of Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions of patients presenting to a specialized leishmaniasis clinics in Iran. A total 128 (70 female and 58 male) consecutive patients aged 3 months to 75 years (mean age of 11.25 years), presenting to Lesion biopsies were cultured in duplicate and parallel in traditional culture tubes containing NNN medium and modified NNN medium. The contamination rate in two groups of media was assessed. After sufficient incubation we have investigated that the media tubes for the presence of fungi. Through 90 samples, in 46 NNN media and 58 mycoNNN promastigotes were growth and culture positive. The difference between NNN medium and Mycosel NNN was quite significant (p<0.05). The overall sensitivity of Modified NNN medium were 75%, while traditional culture had sensitivity of 64.8%. We have demonstrated that modified NNN medium is a more sensitive and time-efficient means of isolating Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions than traditional culture. Our study showed that contamination of NNN medium as base culture medium for isolation of Leishmania agents could be diminished significantly by addition of mycosel agar to NNN medium.
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