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Articles by F. Abu Bakar
Total Records ( 4 ) for F. Abu Bakar
  W.M. Wan Norhasima , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar , R. Son and A. Norhafniza
  Problem statements: Fumonisin was a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium in various foods and feeds. They occurred worldwide and were found predominantly in corn and in corn-based animal feeds and also can be found in other crops. Contamination of food and feed with fumonisins has been implicated in and associated with a number of diseases in both livestock as well as human beings. Approach: A review was done on the effect of fumonisins on animal and human and detoxification method for the prevention. ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, Google and Yahoo were used in the preparation of this review. Results: This review clarified that the major forms of fumonisins found in food were the B series, fumonisin B1, B2 and B3. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was the most common and the most thoroughly studied. FB1 caused toxicities in animals including Equine Leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), Porcine Pulmonary Edema (PPE) in pigs and nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rats. Furthermore, FB1 had been implicated to be associated with high rates of human esophageal cancer. In addition to their natural occurrence in corn-based animal feeds and in home-grown corn used for food, fumonisins were frequently found in commercial corn-based foods. Methods for prevention and detoxification for fumonisins included prevention of plants contamination at the field level and harvest and post-harvest control of fumonisins. Furthermore, the diseases occurred in livestock will pose the additional economic losses in livestock farmers. Conclusion: Due to economic losses engendered by fumonisin, several strategies for detoxifying and preventing contaminated foods and feeds had been described in the literature including physical and biological process. However these methods still in demonstrated. Awareness of fumonisin-related animal diseases, contamination of fumonisin in foods and feeds and adherence to guidance recommendation in prevention methods were important for reducing fumonisin-induced diseases in agriculturally important species.
  F. Abu Bakar , A.S. Abdulamir , N. Nordin and T.S. Yoke
  Lactobacillus sp. is probiotic bacteria for which many detection methods were envisaged. However, culture-based methods failed to achieve specific detection of this bacterium due to its presence in mixed bacterial complex communities. The PCR assay was optimized to detect and quantify Lactobacillus sp. specifically in complex microbial community of mixed bacteria. Four DNA extraction methods, DNA integrity, primers specificity and optimized PCR procedure were all tested. It was shown that extracted genomic DNA using Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit showed the highest yield, quality and performance in gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the specificity of the primer set, Lacto-16S-F /Lacto-16S-R, specific for Lactobacillus sp. was checked and found highly specific. In conclusion, the best DNA extraction protocol, working specific primer set and working PCR assay were achieved for achieving efficient, specific and reliable molecular-based, culture-independent, method of detection of lactobacillus sp. in PCR-suppressor highly protein-complex environment of mixed bacteria community.
  E. Khoshraftar , H.M. Anvari , H.K. Assadi , A.S. Abdulamir and F. Abu Bakar
  The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify the pain relief after minor surgery when certain analgesics are used before surgery. Double blind study was conducted on 300 outpatient surgery patients who were allocated into two groups. Before surgery, 100 mg of acetaminophen was given to one group and 75 mg of diclofenac to the other one. The pain level after surgery was measured and recorded in both groups by a ruler 10 cm using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) method at intervals of 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 h after surgery. Also for the patients with VAS more than 7, it was recommended to administer IM 50-100 mg teramadole ampoule. Mean VAS in acetaminophen group was 5.28±1.17, 5.17 ±1.04, 4.47±1.05±, 3.97±1.09 while, in diclofenac group was 5.09±1.10, 5.10±1.024.27±1.05 and 3/73±1.07 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after surgery, respectively. In fact there was no significant difference in pain level after surgery between acetaminophen and diclofenac groups (p>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of pain relief induced by administering tramadol calmative ampoule along with acetaminophen and diclofenac groups (p>0.05). Acetaminophen results in as effective pain relief as diclofenac with or without tramadol calmative. Due to minimal side effects of acetaminophen when compared to other analgesics, like diclofenac, it is recommended to use acetaminophen for safe and efficient pain relief after outpatients surgeries.
  I. Pakzad , A. Rezaee , M.J. Rasaee , A.Z. Hosseini , B. Tabbaraee , S. Ghafurian , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar and M. Raftari
  Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella abortus is an essential component for developing the subunit vaccine against brucellosis. B. abortus LPS was extracted by n-butanol, purified by ultracentrifugation and detoxified by alkaline treatment. Pyrogenicity and toxicity of B. abortus LPS and detoxified–LPS (D-LPS) were analyzed and compared with LPS of E. coli. Different groups of mice were immunized intraperitoneally with purified B. abortus LPS, D-LPS, a combination of LPS with human serum albumin (LPS-HSA) and B. abortus S19 bacteria; besides, control mice were inoculated with sterile saline. Two doses of vaccine were given 4 weeks apart. Mice were challenged intraperitoneally with virulent B. abortus 544 strain 4 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. Sera and spleens of mice were harvested 4 weeks after challenge. LPS-B. abortus was 10,000-fold less potent in LAL test and 100-fold less potent in eliciting fever in rabbits than in E. coli LPS. And D-LPS was very less potent in LAL test and eliciting fever in rabbits ordinary LPS. The antibody titer of anti-LPS immunoglobulin G (IgG) was higher than D-LPS. However, mice immunized with either LPS, D-LPS or LPS-HSA vaccines showed a significant protection against infection of the spleen (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between mice immunized with LPS and D-LPS in terms of protection (p<0.99). Therefore, it was concluded that D-LPS and LPS-HSA for B. abortus can be used as safer and more potent vaccines than ordinary LPS-B. abortus vaccine.
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